References

Aart, E. and Korst, J. (1989). Simulated Annealing and Boltzmann Machines. Wiley, New York.

Abu-Mostafa, Y. S. (1986a). "Neural Networks for Computing?" in Neural Networks for Computing, J. S. Denker, Editor, 151, 1-6. American Institute of Physics, New York.

Abu-Mostafa, Y. S. (1986b). "Complexity of Random Problems," in Complexity in Information Theory, Y. Abu-Mostafa, Editor, 115-131. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Abu-Mostafa, Y. S. and Psaltis, D. (1987). "Optical Neural Computers," Scientific American, 256(3), 88-95.

Abu Zitar, R. A. (1993). Machine Learning with Rule Extraction by Genetic Assisted Reinforcement (REGAR): Application to Nonlinear Control. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Abu Zitar, R. A. and Hassoun, M. H. (1993a). "Neurocontrollers Trained with Rules Extracted by a Genetic Assisted Reinforcement Learning System," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, to appear in 1994.

Abu Zitar, R. A. and Hassoun, M. H. (1993b). "Regulator Control via Genetic Search Assisted Reinforcement," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Urbana-Champaign 1993), S. Forrest, Editor, 254-262. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Ackley, D. H. and Littman, M. S. (1990). "Generalization and Scaling in Reinforcement Learning," in Advances in Neural Information Processing II (Denver 1989), D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 550-557. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Ackley, D. H., Hinton, G. E., and Sejnowski, T. J. (1985). "A Learning Algorithm for Boltzmann Machines," Cognitive Science, 9, 147-169.

Alander, J. T. (1992). "On Optimal Population Size of Genetic Algorithms," Proceedings of CompEuro 92 (The Hague, Netherlands 1992), 65-70. IEEE Computer Society Press, New York.

Albert, A. (1972). Regression and the Moore-Penrose Pseudoinverse. Academic Press, New York, NY.

Albus, J. S. (1971). "A Theory of Cerebellar Functions," Mathematical Biosciences, 10, 25-61.

Albus, J. S. (1975). "A New Approach to Manipulator Control: The Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller (CMAC)," Journal of Dynamic Systems Measurement and Control, Transactions of the ASME, 97, 220-227.

Albus, J. S. (1979). "A Model of the Brain for Robot Control, Part 2: A Neurological Model," BYTE, 54-95.

Albus, J. S. (1981). Brains, Behavior, and Robotics. BYTE/McGraw-Hill, Peterborough.

Alkon, D. L., Blackwell, K. T., Vogl, T. P., and Werness, S. A. (1993). "Biological Plausibility of Artificial Neural Networks: Learning by Non-Hebbian Synapses," in Associative Neural Memories: Theory and Implementation, M. H. Hassoun, Editor, 31-49. Oxford University Press, New York.

Almeida, L. B. (1987). "A Learning Rule for Asynchronous Perceptrons with Feedback in a Combinatorial Environment," in IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), M. Caudill and C. Butler, Editors, vol. II, 609-618. IEEE, New York.

Almeida, L. B. (1988). "Backpropagation in Perceptrons with Feedback," in Neural Computers (Neuss 1987), R. Eckmiller and C. von der Malsburg, Editors, 199-208. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Alspector, J. and Allen, B. B. (1987). "A Neuromorphic VLSI Learning System," in Advanced Research in VLSI: Proceedings of the 1987 Stanford Conference, P. Losleben, Editor, 313-349. MIT, Cambridge.

Aluffi-Pentini, F., Parisi, V., and Zirilli, F. (1985). "Global Optimization and Stochastic Differential Equations," Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 47(1), 1-16.

Amari, S.-I. (1967). "Theory of Adaptive Pattern Classifiers," IEEE Trans. Electronic Computers, EC-16, 299-307.

Amari, S.-I. (1968). Geometrical Theory of Information. In Japanese. Kyoritsu-Shuppan, Tokyo.

Amari, S.-I. (1971). "Characteristics of Randomly Connected Threshold-Element Networks and Network Systems," IEEE Proc., 59(1), 35-47.

Amari, S.-I. (1972a). "Learning Patterns and Pattern Sequences by Self-Organizing Nets of Threshold Elements," IEEE Trans. Computers, C-21, 1197-1206.

Amari, S.-I. (1972b). "Characteristics of Random Nets of Analog Neuron-Like Elements," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-2(5), 643-657.

Amari, S.-I. (1974). "A Method of Statistical Neurodynamics," Kybernetik, 14, 201-215.

Amari, S.-I. (1977a). "Neural Theory of Association and Concept-Formation," Biological Cybernetics, 26, 175-185.

Amari, S.-I. (1977b). "Dynamics of Pattern Formation in Lateral-Inhibition Type Neural Fields," Biological Cybernetics, 27, 77-87.

Amari, S.-I. (1980). "Topographic Organization of Nerve Fields," Bull. of Math. Biology, 42, 339-364.

Amari, S.-I. (1983). "Field Theory of Self-Organizing Neural Nets," IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybernetics, SMC-13, 741-748.

Amari, S.-I. (1989). "Characteristics of Sparsely Encoded Associative Memory," Neural Networks, 2(6), 451-457.

Amari, S.-I. (1990). "Mathematical Foundations of Neurocomputing," Proceedings of the IEEE, 78(9), 1443-1463.

Amari, S.-I. (1993). "A Universal Theorem on Learning Curves," Neural Networks, 6(2), 161-166.

Amari, S.-I., Fujita, N., and Shinomoto, S. (1992). "Four Types of Learning Curves," Neural Computation, 4(2), 605-618.

Amari, S.-I. and Maginu, K. (1988). "Statistical Neurodynamics of Associative Memory," Neural Networks, 1(1), 63-73.

Amari, S.-I. and Murata, N. (1993). "Statistical Theory of Learning Curves Under Entropic Loss Criterion," Neural Computation, 5(1), 140-153.

Amari, S.-I. and Yanai, H.-F. (1993). "Statistical Neurodynamics of Various Types of Associative Nets," in Associative Neural Memories: Theory and Implementation, M. H. Hassoun, Editor, 169-183. Oxford University Press, New York.

Amit, D. J. (1989). Modeling Brain Function: The World of Attractor Neural Networks. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Amit, D. J., Gutfreund, H., and Sompolinsky, H. (1985). "Storing Infinite Numbers of Patterns in a Spin-Glass Model of Neural Networks," Physical Review Lett., 55(14), 1530-1533.

Amit, D. J., Gutfreund, H., and Sompolinsky, H. (1987). "Statistical Mechanics of Neural Networks Near Saturation," Ann. Phys. N. Y., 173, 30-67.

Anderberg, M. R. (1973). Cluster Analysis for Applications. Academic Press, NY.

Anderson, J. A. (1972). "A Simple Neural Network Generating Interactive Memory," Mathematical Biosciences, 14, 197-220.

Anderson, J. A. (1983). "Neural Models for Cognitive Computations," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-13, 799-815.

Anderson, J. A. (1993). "The BSB Model: A Simple Nonlinear Autoassociative Neural Network," in Associative Neural Memories: Theory and Implementation, M. H. Hassoun, Editor, 77-103. Oxford University Press, New York.

Anderson, D. Z. and Erie, M. C. (1987). "Resonator Memories and Optical Novelty Filters," Optical Engineering, 26, 434-444.

Anderson, J. A., Gately, M. T., Penz, P. A., and Collins, D. R. (1990). "Radar Signal Categorization Using a Neural Network," Proc. IEEE, 78, 1646-1657.

Anderson, J. A. and Murphy, G. L. (1986). "Psychological Concepts in a Parallel System," Physica, 22-D, 318-336.

Anderson, J. A., Silverstien, J. W., Ritz, S. A., and Jones, R. S. (1977). "Distinctive Features, Categorical Perception, and Probability Learning: Some Applications of a Neural Model," Psychological Review, 84, 413-451.

Angeniol, B., Vaubois, G. and Le Texier, Y.-Y. (1988). "Self-Organizing Feature Maps and the Traveling Salesman Problem," Neural Networks, 1(4), 289-293.

Apolloni, B. and De Falco, D. (1991). "Learning by Asymmetric Parallel Boltzmann Machines." Neural Computation, 3(3), 402-408.

Apostol, T. M. (1957). Mathematical Analysis: A Modern Approach to Advanced Calculus. Addison-Wesely, Reading, MA.

Bachmann, C. M., Cooper, L. N., Dembo, A., and Zeitouni, O. (1987). "A Relaxation Model for Memory with High Storage Density," Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 84, 7529-7531.

Bäck, T. (1993). "Optimal Mutation Rates in Genetic Search," Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Urbana-Champaign 1993), S. Forrest, Editor, 2-8. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Baird, B. (1990). "Associative Memory in a Simple Model of Oscillating Cortex," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2 (Denver 1989) D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 68-75. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Baird, B. and Eeckman, F. (1993). "A Normal Form Projection Algorithm for Associative Memory," in Associative Neural Memories: Theory and Implementation, M. H. Hassoun, Editor, 135-166. Oxford University Press, New York.

Baldi, P. (1991). "Computing with Arrays of Bell-Shaped and Sigmoid Functions," in Neural Information Processing Systems 3 (Denver 1990), R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky, Editors, 735-742. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Baldi, P. and Chauvin, Y. (1991). "Temporal Evolution of Generalization during Learning in Linear Networks," Neural Computation, 3(4), 589-603.

Baldi, P. and Hornik, K. (1989). "Neural Networks and Principal Component Analysis: Learning from Examples Without Local Minima," Neural Networks, 2(1), 53-58.

Barto, A. G. (1985). "Learning by Statistical Cooperation of Self-Interested Neuron-Like Computing Elements," Human Neurobiology, 4, 229-256.

Barto, A. G. and Anandan, P. (1985). "Pattern Recognizing Stochastic Learning Automata," IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-15, 360-375.

Barto, A. G. and Jordan, M. I. (1987). "Gradient Following without Backpropagation in Layered Networks," in IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), M. Caudill and C. Butler, Editors, vol. II, 629-636. IEEE, New York.

Barto, A. G. and Singh, S. P. (1991). "On The Computational Economics of Reinforcement Learning," in Connectionist Models: Proceedings of the 1990 Summer School (Pittsburgh 1990), D. S. Touretzky, J. L. Elman, T. J. Sejnowski, and G. E. Hinton, Editors, 35-44, Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Barto A. G., Sutton, R. S., and Anderson, C. W. (1983). "Neuronlike Adaptive Elements That Can Solve Difficult Learning Control Problems," IEEE Trans. System. Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-13(5), 834-846.

Batchelor, B. G. (1969). Learning Machines for Pattern Recognition, Ph.D. thesis, University of Southampton, Southampton, England.

Batchelor, B. G. (1974). Practical Approach to Pattern Classification. Plenum, New York.

Batchelor, B. G. and Wilkins, B. R. (1968). "Adaptive Discriminant Functions," Pattern Recognition, IEEE Conf. Publ. 42, 168-178.

Battiti, R. (1992). "First- and Second-Order Methods for Learning: Between Steepest Descent and Newton's Method," Neural Computation, 4(2), 141-166.

Baum, E. B. (1988). "On the Capabilities of Multilayer Perceptrons," Journal of Complexity, 4, 193-215.

Baum, E. (1989). "A Proposal for More Powerful Learning Algorithms," Neural Computation, 1(2), 201-207.

Baum, E. and Haussler, D. (1989). "What Size Net Gives Valid Generalization?" Neural Computation, 1(1), 151-160.

Baum, E. B. and Wilczek, F. (1988). "Supervised Learning of Probability Distributions by Neural Networks," in Neural Information Processing Systems (Denver 1987), D. Z. Anderson, Editor, 52-61, American Institute of Physics, New York.

Baxt, W. G. (1990). "Use of Artificial Neural Network for Data Analysis in Clinical Decision-Making: The Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Occlusion," Neural Computation, 2(4), 480-489.

Becker, S. and Le Cun, Y. (1989). "Improving the Convergence of Back-Propagation Learning with Second Order Methods," in Proceedings of the 1988 Connectionist Models Summer School (Pittsburgh 1988), D. Touretzky, G. Hinton, and T. Sejnowski, Editors, 29-37. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Beckman, F. S. (1964). "The Solution of Linear Equations by the Conjugate Gradient Method," in Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers, A. Ralston and H. S. Wilf, Editors. Wiley, New York.

Belew, R., McInerney, J., and Schraudolph, N. N. (1990). "Evolving Networks: Using the Genetic Algorithm with Connectionist Learning," CSE Technical Report CS90-174, University of California, San Diego.

Benaim, M. (1994). "On Functional Approximation with Normalized Gaussian Units," Neural Computation, 6(2), 319-333.

Benaim, M. and Tomasini, L. (1992). "Approximating Functions and Predicting Time Series with Multi-Sigmoidal Basis Functions," in Artificial Neural Networks, J. Aleksander and J. Taylor, Editors, vol. 1, 407-411. Elsevier Science Publisher B. V., Amsterdam.

Bilbro, G. L., Mann, R., Miller, T. K., Snyder, W. E., van den Bout, D. E., and White, M. (1989). "Optimization by Mean Field Annealing," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems I (Denver 1988), Touretzky, D. S., 91-98. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Bilbro, G. L. and Snyder, W. E. (1989). "Range Image Restoration Using Mean Field Annealing," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems I (Denver 1988), Touretzky, D. S., 594-601. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Bilbro, G. L., Snyder, W. E., Garnier, S. J., and Gault, J. W. (1992). "Mean Field Annealing: A Formalism for Constructing GNC-like Algorithms," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 3(1), 131-138.

Bishop, C. (1991). "Improving the Generalization Properties of Radial Basis Function Neural Networks," Neural Computation, 3(4), 579-588.

Bishop, C. (1992). "Exact Calculation of the Hessian Matrix for the Multilayer Perceptron," Neural Computation, 4(4), 494-501.

Block, H. D. and Levin, S. A. (1970). "On the Boundedness of an Iterative Procedure for Solving a System of Linear Inequalities," Proc. American Mathematical Society, 26, 229-235.

Blum, A. L. and Rivest, R. (1989). "Training a 3-Node Neural Network is NP-Complete," Proceedings of the 1988 Workshop on Computational Learning Theory, 9-18, Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Blum, A. L. and Rivest, R. (1992). "Training a 3-Node Neural Network is NP-Complete," Neural Networks, 5(1), 117-127.

Blumer, A., Ehrenfeucht, A., Haussler, D., and Warmuth, M. (1989). "Learnability and the Vapnik-Chervonenkis Dimension," JACM, 36(4), 929-965.

Boole, G. (1854). An Investigation of the Laws of Thought. Dover, NY.

Bounds, D. G., Lloyd, P. J., Mathew, B., and Wadell, G. (1988). "A Multilayer Perceptron Network for the Diagnosis of Low Back Pain," in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1988), vol. II, 481-489

Bourlard, H. and Kamp, Y. (1988). "Auto-Association by Multilayer Perceptrons and Singular Value Decomposition," Biological Cybernetics, 59, 291-294.

van den Bout, D. E. and Miller, T. K. (1988). "A Traveling Salesman Objective Function that Works," in IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1988), vol. II, 299-303. IEEE, New York.

van den Bout, D. E. and Miller, T. K. (1989). "Improving the Performance of the Hopfield-Tank Neural Network Through Normalization and Annealing," Biological Cybernetics, 62, 129-139.

Bromley, J. and Denker, J. S. (1993). "Improving Rejection Performance on Handwritten Digits by Training with 'Rubbish'," Neural Computation, 5(3), 367-370.

Broomhead, D. S. and Lowe, D. (1988). "Multivariate Functional Interpolation and Adaptive Networks," Complex Systems, 2, 321-355.

Brown, R. R. (1959). "A Generalized Computer Procedure for the Design of Optimum Systems: Parts I and II," AIEE Transactions, Part I: Communications and Electronics, 78, 285-293.

Brown, R. J. (1964). Adaptive Multiple-Output Threshold Systems and Their Storage Capacities, Ph.D. Thesis, Tech. Report 6771-1, Stanford Electron. Labs, Stanford University, CA.

Brown, M., Harris, C. J., and Parks, P. (1993). "The Interpolation Capabilities of the Binary CMAC," Neural Networks, 6(3), 429-440.

Bryson, A. E. and Denham, W. F. (1962). "A Steepest-Ascent Method for Solving Optimum Programming Problems," J. Applied Mechanics, 29(2), 247-257.

Bryson, A. E. and Ho, Y.-C. (1969). Applied Optimal Control. Blaisdell, New York.

Burke, L. I. (1991). "Clustering Characterization of Adaptive Resonance," Neural Networks, 4(4), 485-491.

Burshtien, D. (1993). "Nondirect Convergence Analysis of the Hopfield Associative Memory," in Proc. World Congress on Neural Networks (Portland 1993), vol. II, 224-227. LEA, Hillsdale, NJ.

Butz, A. R. (1967). "Perceptron Type Learning Algorithms in Nonseparable Situations," J. Math Anal. and Appl., 17, 560-576. Also, see Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1965.

Cameron, S. H. (1960). "An Estimate of the Complexity Requisite in a Universal Decision Network," Wright Air Development Division, Report 60-600, 197-212.

Cannon Jr., R. H. (1967). Dynamics of Physical Systems. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Carnahan, B., Luther, H. A., and Wilkes, J. O. (1969). Applied Numerical Methods. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Carpenter, G. A. and Grossberg, S. (1987a). "A Massively Parallel Architecture for a Self-Organizing Neural Pattern Recognition Machine," Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, 37, 54-115.

Carpenter, G. A. and Grossberg, S. (1987b). "ART2: Self-Organization of Stable Category Recognition Codes for Analog Input Patterns," Applied Optics, 26(23), 4919-4930.

Carpenter, G. A. and Grossberg, S. (1990). "ART3: Hierarchical Search Using Chemical Transmitters in Self-Organizing Pattern Recognition Architectures," Neural Networks, 3(2), 129-152.

Carpenter, G. A., Grossberg, S., and Reynolds, J. H. (1991a). "ARTMAP: Supervised Real-Time Learning and Classification of Nonstationary Data by a Self-Organizing Neural Network," Neural Networks, 4(5), 565-588.

Carpenter, G. A., Grossberg, S., and Rosen, D. B. (1991b). "ART2-A: An Adaptive Resonance Algorithm for Rapid Category Learning and Recognition," Neural Networks, 4(4), 493-504.

Casasent, D. and Telfer, B. (1987). "Associative Memory Synthesis, Performance, Storage Capacity, and Updating: New Heteroassociative Memory Results," Proc. SPIE, Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision, 848, 313-333.

Casdagli, M. (1989). "Nonlinear Prediction of Chaotic Time Series," Physica, 35D, 335-356.

Cater, J. P. (1987). "Successfully Using Peak Learning Rates of 10 (and Greater) in Back-Propagation Networks with the Heuristic Learning Algorithm," in Proc. IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), M. Caudill and C. Butler, Editors, vol. II, 645-651. IEEE, New York.

Cauchy, A. (1847). "Méthod Générale pour la Résolution des Systémes d' E'quations Simultanées," Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances del l' Académie des Sciences, Paris, 25, 536-538.

Caudell, T. P. and Dolan, C. P. (1989). "Parametric Connectivity: Training of Constrained Networks Using Genetic Algorithms," in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Arlington 1989), J. D. Schaffer, Editor, 370-374. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Cetin, B. C., Burdick, J. W., and Barhen, J. (1993a). "Global Descent Replaces Gradient Descent to Avoid Local Minima Problem in Learning With Artificial Neural Networks," in IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Francisco 1993), vol. II, 836-842. IEEE, New York.

Cetin, B. C., Barhen, J., and Burdick, J. W. (1993b). "Terminal Repeller Unconstrained Subenergy Tunneling (TRUST) for Fast Global Optimization," Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 77, 97-126.

Chalmers, D. J. (1991). "The Evolution of Learning: An Experiment in Genetic Connectionism," in Connectionist Models: Proceedings of the 1990 Summer School (Pittsburgh 1990), D. S. Touretzky, J. L. Elman, and G. E. Hinton, Editors, 81-90. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Chan, L. W. and Fallside, F. (1987). "An Adaptive Training Algorithm for Backpropagation Networks," Computer Speech and Language, 2, September - December, 205-218.

Changeux, J. P. and Danchin, A. (1976). "Selective Stabilization of Developing Synapses as a Mechanism for the Specification of Neural Networks," Nature (London), 264, 705-712.

Chauvin, Y. (1989). "A Back-Propagation Algorithm with Optimal Use of Hidden Units," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 1 (Denver 1988), D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 519-526. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Chiang, T.-S., Hwang, C.-R., and Sheu, S.-J. (1987). "Diffusion for Global Optimization in Rn," SIAM J. Control Optimization, 25(3), 737-752.

Chiueh, T. D. and Goodman, R. M. (1988). "High Capacity Exponential Associative Memory," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1988), vol. I, 153-160. IEEE Press, New York.

Chiueh, T. D. and Goodman, R. M. (1991). "Recurrent Correlation Associative Memories," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 2(2), 275-284.

Cichocki, A. and Unbehauen, R. (1993). Neural Networks for Optimization and Signal Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England.

Cohen, M. A. and Grossberg, S. (1983). "Absolute Stability of Global Pattern Formation and Parallel Memory Storage by Competitive Neural Networks," IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-13, 815-826.

Cohn, D. and Tesauro, G. (1991). "Can Neural Networks do Better than the Vapnik-Chervonenkis Bounds?" in Neural Information Processing Systems 3 (Denver, 1990), R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky, Editors., 911-917. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Cohn, D. and Tesauro, G. (1992). "How Tight are the Vapnik-Chervonenkis Bounds?" Neural Computation, 4(2), 249-269.

Cooper, P. W. (1962). "The Hypersphere in Pattern Recognition," Information and Control, 5,324-346.

Cooper, P. W. (1966). "A Note on Adaptive Hypersphere Decision Boundary," IEEE Transactions on Electronic Computers (December 1966), 948-949.

Cortes, C. and Hertz, J. A. (1989). "A Network System for Image Segmentation," in International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Washington 1989), vol. I, 121-127. IEEE, New York.

Cotter, N. E. and Guillerm, T. J. (1992). "The CMAC and a Theorem of Kolmogorov," Neural Networks, 5(2), 221-228.

Cottrell, G. W. (1991). "Extracting Features from Faces Using Compression Networks: Face, Identity, Emotion, and Gender Recognition Using Holons," in Connectionist Models: Proceedings of the 1990 Summer School (Pittsburgh 1990), D. S. Touretzky, J. L. Elman, T. J. Sejnowski, and G. E. Hinton, Editors, 328-337. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Cottrell, M. and Fort, J. C. (1986). "A Stochastic Model of Retinotopy: A Self-Organizing Process," Biol. Cybern., 53, 405-411.

Cottrell, G. W. and Munro, P. (1988). "Principal Component Analysis of Images via Backpropagation," invited talk, in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (Cambridge 1988), vol. 1001, 1070-1077.

Cottrell, G. W., Munro, P., and Zipser, D. (1987). "Learning Internal Representations from Gray-Scale Images: An Example of Extensional Programming," in Ninth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (Seattle 1987), 462-473. Erlbaum, Hillsdale.

Cottrell, G. W., Munro, P., and Zipser, D. (1989). "Image Compression by Back Propagation: An Example of Extensional Programming," in Models of Cognition: A Review of Cognitive Science, vol. 1, N. Sharkey, Editor. Ablex, Norwood.

Cover, T. M. (1964). Geometrical and Statistical Properties of Linear Threshold Devices, Ph.D. Dissertation, Tech. Report 6107-1, Stanford Electron. Labs, Stanford University, CA.

Cover, T. M. (1965). "Geometrical and Statistical Properties of Systems of Linear Inequalities with Applications in Pattern Recognition," IEEE Trans. Elec. Comp., EC-14, 326-334.

Cover, T. M. (1968). "Rates of Convergence of Nearest Neighbor Decision Procedures," Proc. First Annual Hawaii Conference on Systems Theory, 413-415.

Cover, T. M. and Hart, P. E. (1967). "Nearest Neighbor Pattern Classification," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, IT-13(1), 21-27.

Crisanti, A. and Sompolinsky, H. (1987). "Dynamics of Spin Systems with Randomly Asymmetric Bounds: Langevin Dynamics and a Spherical Model," Phys. Rev. A., 36, 4922.

Crowder III, R. S. (1991). "Predicting the Mackey-Glass Time Series with Cascade-Correlation Learning," in Connectionist Models: Proceedings of the 1990 Summer School (Pittsburgh 1990), D. S. Touretzky, J. L. Elman, T. J. Sejnowski, and G. E. Hinton, Editors, 117-123. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Cybenko, G. (1989). "Approximation by Superpositions of a Sigmoidal Function," Math. Control Signals Systems, 2, 303-314.

Darken, C. and Moody, J. (1991). "Note on Learning Rate Schedules for Stochastic Optimization," in Neural Information Processing Systems 3 (Denver 1990), R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky, Editors, 832-838. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Darken, C. and Moody, J. (1992). "Towards Faster Stochastic Gradient Search," in Neural Information Processing Systems 4 (Denver, 1991), J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, and R. P. Lippmann, Editors, 1009-1016. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Davis, L. (1987). Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing. Pitman, London, England.

Davis, T. E. and Principe, J. C. (1993). "A Markov Chain Framework for the Simple Genetic Algorithm," Evolutionary Computation, 1(3), 269-288.

D'Azzo, J. J. and Houpis, C. H. (1988). Linear Control Systems Analysis and Design (3rd edition). McGraw-Hill, New York.

De Jong, K. (1975). An Analysis of the Behavior of a Class of Genetic Adaptive Systems. Doctoral Thesis, Department of Computer and Communications Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

De Jong, K. and Spears, W. (1993). "On the State of Evolutionary Computation," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Urbana-Champaign 1993), S. Forrest, Editor, 618-623. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Dembo, A. and Zeitouni, O. (1988). "High Density Associative Memories," in Neural Information Processing Systems (Denver 1987), D. Z. Anderson, Editor, 211-212. American Institute of Physics, New York.

DeMers, D. and Cottrell, G. (1993). "Non-Linear Dimensionality Reduction," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 5 (Denver 1992), S. J. Hanson, J. D. Cowan, and C. L. Giles, Editors, 550-587. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Dennis Jr., J. E. and Schnabel, R. B. (1983). Numerical Methods for Unconstrained Optimization and Nonlinear Equations. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Denoeux, T. and Lengellé, R. (1993). "Initializing Back Propagation Networks with Prototypes," Neural Networks, 6(3), 351-363.

Derthick, M. (1984). "Variations on the Boltzmann Machine," Technical Report CMU-CS-84-120, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Dertouzos, M. L. (1965). Threshold Logic: A Synthesis Approach. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Dickinson, B. W. (1991). Systems: Analysis, Design, and Computation. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, CA.

Dickmanns, E. D. and Zapp, A. (1987). "Autonomous High Speed Road Vehicle Guidance by Computer Vision," in Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Automatic Control (Munich, West Germany 1987), vol. 4, 221-226.

Drucker, H. and Le Cun, Y. (1992), "Improving Generalization Performance Using Double Backpropagation," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 3(6), 991-997.

Duda, R. O. and Hart, P. E. (1973). Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis. John Wiley. New York.

Duda, R. O. and Singleton, R. C. (1964). "Training a Threshold Logic Unit with Imperfect Classified Patterns," IRE Western Electric Show and Convention Record, Paper 3.2.

Durbin, R. and Willshaw, D. (1987). "An Analogue Approach to The Traveling Salesman Problem Using an Elastic Net Method," Nature, 326, 689-691.

Efron, D. (1964). "The Perceptron Correction Procedure in Non-Separable Situations," Tech. Report. No. RADC-TDR-63-533.

Elamn, J. L. and Zipser, D. (1988). "Learning the Hidden Structure of Speech," Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 83, 1615-1626.

Everitt, B. S. (1980). Cluster Analysis (2nd edition). Heinemann Educational Books, London.

Fahlman, S. E. (1989). "Fast Learning Variations on Back-Propagation: An Empirical Study," in Proceedings of the 1988 Connectionist Models Summer School (Pittsburgh 1988), D. Touretzky, G. Hinton, and T. Sejnowski, Editors, 38-51. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Fahlman, S. E. and Lebiere, C. (1990). "The Cascade-Correlation Learning Architecture," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2 (Denver 1989), D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 524-532. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Fakhr, W. (1993). "Optimal Adaptive Probabilistic Neural Networks for Pattern Classification," Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.

Fang, Y. and Sejnowski, T. J. (1990). "Faster Learning for Dynamic Recurrent Backpropagation," Neural Computation, 2(3), 270-273.

Farden, D. C. (1981). "Tracking Properties of Adaptive Signal Processing Algorithms," IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Proc., ASSP-29, 439-446.

Farhat, N. H. (1987). "Optoelectronic Analogs of Self-Programming Neural Nets: Architectures and Methods for Implementing Fast Stochastic Learning by Simulated Annealing," Applied Optics, 26, 5093-5103.

Feigenbaum, M. (1978). "Quantitative Universality for a Class of Nonlinear Transformations," J. Stat. Phys., 19, 25-52.

Fels, S. S. and Hinton, G. E. (1993). "Glove-Talk: A Neural Network Interface Between a Data-Glove and a Speech Synthesizer," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 4(1), 2-8.

Finnoff, W. (1993). "Diffusion Approximations for the Constant Learning Rate Backpropagation Algorithm and Resistance to Local Minima," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 5 (Denver 1992), S. J. Hanson, J. D. Cowan, and C. L. Giles, Editors, 459-466. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Finnoff, W. (1994). "Diffusion Approximations for the Constant Learning Rate Backpropagation Algorithm and Resistance to Local Minima," Neural Computation, 6(2), 285-295.

Finnoff, W., Hergert, F., Zimmermann, H. G. (1993). "Improving Model Selection by Nonconvergent Methods," Neural Networks, 6(5), 771-783.

Fisher, M. L. (1981). "The Lagrangian Relaxation Method for Solving Integer Programming Problems," Manag. Sci., 27(1), 1-18.

Fix, E. and Hodges Jr., J. L. (1951). "Discriminatory Analysis: Non-parametric Discrimination," Report 4, Project 21-49-004, USAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas.

Franzini, M. A. (1987). "Speech Recognition with Back Propagation," in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Boston 1987), 1702-1703. IEEE, New York.

Frean, M. (1990). "The Upstart Algorithm: A Method for Constructing and Training Feedforward Neural Networks," Neural Computation, 2(2), 198-209.

Fritzke, B. (1991). "Let it Grow - Self-Organizing Feature Maps with Problem Dependent Cell Structure," in Artificial Neural Networks, Proc. of the 1991 Int. Conf. on Artificial Neural Networks (Espoo 1991), T. Kohonen, K. Mäkisara, O. Simula, and J. Kangas, Editors, vol. I, 403-408. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam.

Funahashi, K.-I. (1989). "On the Approximate Realization of Continuous Mappings by Neural Networks," Neural Networks, 2(3), 183-192.

Funahashi, K.-I. (1990). "On the Approximate Realization of Identity Mappings by 3-Layer Neural Networks (in Japanese," Trans. IEICE A, J73-A, 139-145.

Funahashi, K.-I. and Nakamura, Y. (1993). "Approximation of Dynamical Systems by Continuous Time Recurrent Neural Networks," Neural Networks, 6(6), 801-806.

Galland, C. C. and Hinton, G. E. (1991). "Deterministic Boltzmann Learning in Networks with Asymmetric Connectivity," in Connectionist Models: Proceeding of the 1990 Summer School (Pittsburgh 1990), D. S. Touretzky, J. L. Elman, T. J. Sejnowski, and G. E. Hinton, Editors, 3-9. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Gallant, S. I. (1993). Neural Network Learning and Expert Systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Gallant, S. I. and Smith, D. (1987). "Random Cells: An Idea Whose Time Has Come and Gone ... and Come Again?" Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), vol. II, 671-678.

Gamba, A. (1961). "Optimum Performance of Learning Machines," Proc. IRE, 49, 349-350.

Gantmacher, F. R. (1990). The Theory of Matrices, vol. 1, 2nd edition. Chelsea, New York.

Gardner, E. (1986). "Structure of Metastable States in Hopfield Model," J. Physics A, 19, L1047-1052.

Garey, M. R. and Johnson (1979). Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. Freeman, New York.

Gelfand, S. B. and Mitter, S. K. (1991). "Recursive Stochastic Algorithms for Global Optimization in Rd," SIAM J. Control and Optimization, 29(5), 999-1018.

Geman, S. (1979). "Some Averaging and Stability Results for Random Differential Equations," SIAM J. Applied Math., 36, 86-105.

Geman, S. (1980). "A Limit Theorem for the Norm of Random Matrices," Ann. Prob., 8, 252-261.

Geman, S. (1982). "Almost Sure Stable Oscillations in a Large System of Randomly Coupled Equations," SIAM J. Appl. Math., 42(4), 695-703.

Geman, S. and Geman, D. (1984). "Stochastic Relaxation, Gibbs Distributions, and The Bayesian Restoration of Images," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 6, 721-741.

Geman, S. and Hwang, C. R. (1986). "Diffusions for Global Optimization," SIAM J. of Control and Optimization, 24(5), 1031-1043.

Gerald, C. F. (1978). Applied Numerical Analysis (2nd edition). Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Geszti, T. (1990). Physical Models of Neural Networks. World Scientific, Singapore.

Gill, P. E., Murray, W., and Wright, M. H. (1981). Practical Optimization. Academic Press, New York.

Girosi, F. and Poggio, T. (1989). "Representation Properties of Networks: Kolmogorov's Theorem is Irrelevant," Neural Computation, 1(4), 465-469.

Glanz, F. H. and Miller, W. T. (1987). "Shape Recognition Using a CMAC Based Learning System," Proc. SPIE, Robotics and Intelligent Systems, 848, 294-298.

Glanz, F. H. and Miller, W. T. (1989). "Deconvolution and Nonlinear Inverse Filtering Using a Neural Network," Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics and Signal Processing, vol. 4, 2349-2352.

Glauber, R. J. (1963). "Time Dependent Statistics of the Ising Model," Journal of Mathematical Physics, 4, 294-307.

Goldberg, D. (1989). Genetic Algorithms. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Golden, R. M. (1986). "The "Brain-State-in-a-Box" Neural Model is a Gradient Descent Algorithm," Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 30, 73-80.

Golden, R. M. (1993). "Stability and Optimization Analysis of the Generalized Brain-State-in-a-Box Neural Network Model," J. Math. Psychol., 37, 282-298.

Goldman, L., Cook, E. F., Brand, D. A., Lee, T. H., Rouan, G. W., Weisberg, M. C., Acampora, D., Stasiulewicz, C., Walshon, J., Gterranova, G., Gottlieb, L., Kobernick, M., Goldstein-Wayne, B., Copen, D., Daley, K., Brandt, A. A., Jones, D., Mellors, J., Jakubowski, R. (1988). "A Computer Protocol to Predict Myocardial Infarction in Emergency Department Patients with Chest Pain," N. Engl. J. Med., 318, 797-803.

Gonzalez, R. C. and Wintz, P. (1987). Digital Image Processing, 2nd edition. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Gordon, M. B., Peretto, P., and Berchier, D. (1993). "Learning Algorithms for Perceptrons from Statistical Physics," J. Physique I, 3, 377-387.

Gorse, D. and Shepherd, A. (1992). "Adding Stochastic Search to Conjugate Gradient Algorithms," in Proceedings of 3rd International Conf. on Parallel Applications in Statistics and Economics, Praque: Tiskrenfk Zacody.

Gray, R. M. (1984). "Vector Quantization," IEEE ASSP Magazine, 1, 4-29.

Greenberg, H. J. (1988). "Equilibria of the Brain-State-in-a-Box (BSB) Neural Model," Neural Networks, 1(4), 323-324.

Grefenstette, J. J. (1986). "Optimization of Control Parameters for Genetic Algorithms," IEEE Trans. on System, Man and Cybernetics, SMC-16, 122-128.

Grossberg, S. (1969). "On Learning and Energy-Entropy Dependence in Recurrent and Nonrecurrent Signed Networks," Journal of Statistical Physics, 1, 319-350.

Grossberg, S. (1976). "Adaptive Pattern Classification and Universal Recording: I. Parallel Development and Coding of Neural Feature Detectors," Biological Cybernetics, 23, 121-134.

Grossberg, S. (1976). "Adaptive Pattern Classification and Universal Recording, II: Feedback, Expectation, Olfaction, and Illusions," Biological Cybernetics, 23, 187-202.

Hanson, S. J. and Burr, D. J. (1987). "Knowledge Representation in Connectionist Networks," Bellcore Technical Report.

Hanson, S. J. and Burr, D. J. (1988). "Minkowski-r Back-Propagation: Learning in Connectionist Models with Non-Euclidean Error Signals," in Neural Information Processing Systems (Denver 1987), D. Z. Anderson, Editor, 348-357. American Institute of Physics, New York.

Hanson, S. J. and Pratt, L. (1989). "A Comparison of Different Biases for Minimal Network Construction with Back-Propagation," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 1 (Denver 1988), D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 177-185. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Hardy, G., Littlewood, J., and Polya, G. (1952). Inequalities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.

Harp, S. A., Samad, T., and Guha, A. (1989). "Towards the Genetic Synthesis of Neural Networks," in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Arlington 1989), J. D. Schaffer, Editor, 360-369. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Harp, S. A., Samad, T., and Guha, A. (1990). "Designing Application-Specific Neural Networks Using the Genetic Algorithms," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2 (Denver 1989), D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 447-454. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Hartigan, J. A. (1975). Clustering Algorithms. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Hartman, E. J. and Keeler, J. D. (1991a). "Semi-local Units for Prediction," in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Seattle 1991), vol. II, 561-566. IEEE, New York.

Hartman, E. J. and Keeler, J. D. (1991b). "Predicting the Future: Advantages of Semilocal Units," Neural Computation, 3(4), 566-578.

Hartman, E. J., Keeler, J. D., and Kowalski, J. M. (1990). "Layered Neural Networks with Gaussian Hidden Units as Universal Approximators," Neural Computation, 2(2), 210-215.

Hassoun, M. H. (1988). "Two-Level Neural Network for Deterministic Logic Processing," Proc. SPIE, Optical Computing and Nonlinear Materials, 881, 258-264.

Hassoun, M. H. (1989a). "Adaptive Dynamic Heteroassociative Neural Memories for Pattern Classification," in Proc. SPIE, Optical Pattern Recognition, H-K Liu, Editor, 1053, 75-83.

Hassoun, M. H. (1989b). "Dynamic Heteroassociative Neural Memories," Neural Networks, 2(4), 275-287.

Hassoun, M. H., Editor (1993). Associative Neural Memories: Theory and Implementation. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Hassoun, M. H. and Clark, D. W. (1988). "An Adaptive Attentive Learning Algorithm for Single-Layer Neural Networks," Proc. IEEE Annual Conf. Neural Networks, vol. I, 431-440.

Hassoun, M. H. and Song, J. (1992). "Adaptive Ho-Kashyap Rules for Perceptron Training," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 3(1), 51-61.

Hassoun, M. H. and Song, J. (1993a). "Multilayer Perceptron Learning Via Genetic Search for Hidden Layer Activations," in Proceedings of the World Congress on Neural Networks (Portland 1993), vol. III, 437-444.

Hassoun, M. H. and Song, J. (1993b). "Hybrid Genetic/Gradient Search for Multilayer Perceptron Training." Optical Memory and Neural Networks, Special Issue on Architectures, Designs, Algorithms and Devices for Optical Neural Networks (Part 1), 2(1), 1-15.

Hassoun, M. H. and Spitzer, A. R. (1988). "Neural Network Identification and Extraction of Repetitive Superimposed Pulses in Noisy 1-D Signals," Neural Networks, 1, Supplement 1: Abstracts of the First Annual Meeting of the International Neural Networks Society (Boston 1988), 443. Pergamon Press, New York.

Hassoun, M. H., and Youssef, A. M. (1989). "A High-Performance Recording Algorithm for Hopfield Model Associative Memories," Optical Engineering, 28(1), 46-54.

Hassoun, M. H., Song, J., Shen, S.-M., and Spitzer, A. R. (1990). "Self-Organizing Autoassociative Dynamic Multiple-Layer Neural Net for the Decomposition of Repetitive Superimposed Signals," Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Washington, D. C. 1990), vol. I, 621-626. IEEE, New York.

Hassoun, M. H., Wang, C., and Spitzer, A. R. (1992). "Electromyogram Decomposition via Unsupervised Dynamic Multi-Layer Neural Network," in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Baltimore 1992), vol. II, 405-412. IEEE, New York.

Hassoun, M. H., Wang, C., and Spitzer, A. R. (1994a). "NNERVE: Neural Network Extraction of Repetitive Vectors for Electromyography, Part I: Algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, XXX to appear XXX.

Hassoun, M. H., Wang, C., and Spitzer, A. R. (1994b). "NNERVE: Neural Network Extraction of Repetitive Vectors for Electromyography, Part II: Performance Analysis," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, XXX to appear XXX.

Haussler, D., Kearns, M., Opper, M., and Schapire, R. (1992). "Estimating Average-Case Learning Curves Using Bayesian, Statistical Physics and VC Dimension Methods," in Neural Information Processing Systems 4 (Denver 1991), J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, and R. P. Lippmann, Editors., 855-862. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Hebb, D. (1949). The Organization of Behavior. Wiley, New York.

Hecht-Nielsen, R. (1987). "Kolmogorov's Mapping Neural Network Existence Theorem," in Proc. Int. Conf. Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), vol. III, 11-14, IEEE Press, New York.

Hecht-Nielsen, R. (1990). Neurocomputing. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

van Hemman, J. L., Ioffe, L. B., and Vaas, M. (1990). "Increasing the Efficiency of a Neural Network through Unlearning," Physica, 163A, 368-392.

Hergert, F., Finnoff, W., and Zimmermann, H. G. (1992). "A Comparison of Weight Elimination Methods for Reducing Complexity in Neural Networks," in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Baltimore 1992), vol. III, 980-987. IEEE, New York.

Hertz, J., Krogh, A., and Palmer, R. G. (1991). Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation. Addison-Wesley, New York.

Heskes, T. M. and Kappen, B. (1991). "Learning Processes in Neural Networks," Physical Review A, 44(4), 2718-2726.

Heskes, T. M. and Kappen, B. (1993a). "Error Potentials for Self-Organization," in IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Francisco 1993), vol. III, 1219-1223. IEEE, New York.

Heskes, T. M. and Kappen, B. (1993)b. "On-Line Learning Processes in Artificial Neural Networks," in Mathematical Approaches to Neural Networks, J. G. Taylor, Editor, 199-233. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam.

Hestenes, M. R. and Stiefel, E. (1952). "Methods of Conjugate Gradients for Solving Linear Systems," J. Res. Nat. Bur. Standards, 49, 409-436.

Hinton, G. E. (1986). "Learning Distributed Representations of Concepts," in Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (Amherst 1986), 1-12. Erlbaum, Hillsdale.

Hinton, G. E. (1987a). "Connectionist Learning Procedures," Technical Report CMU-CS-87-115, Carnegie-Mellon University, Computer Science Department, Pittsburgh, PA.

Hinton, G. E. (1987b). "Learning Translation Invariant Recognition in a Massively Parallel Network," in PARLE: Parallel Architectures and Languages, Europe Lecture Notes in Computer Science, G. Goos and J. Hartmanis, Editors, 1-13. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Hinton, G. E. and Nowlan, S. J. (1987). "How Learning can Guide Evolution," Complex Systems, 1, 495-502.

Hinton, G. E. and Sejnowski, T. J. (1983). "Optimal Perceptual Inference," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (Washington 1983), 448-453. IEEE, New York.

Hinton, G. E. and Sejnowski, T. J. (1986). "Learning and Relearning in Boltzmann Machines," in Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, vol. I, D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, and the PDP Research Group, MIT Press, Cambridge (1986).

Hirsch, M. W. (1989). "Convergent Activation Dynamics in Continuous Time Networks," Neural Networks, 2(5), 331-349.

Hirsch, M. and Smale, S. (1974). Differential Equations, Dynamical Systems, and Linear Algebra. Academic Press. New York.

Ho, Y.-C. and Kashyap, R. L. (1965). "An Algorithm for Linear Inequalities and its Applications," IEEE Trans. Elec. Comp., EC-14, 683-688.

Holland, J. H. (1975). Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Reprinted as a second edition (1992). MIT Press, Cambridge.

Holland, J. H. (1986). "Escaping Brittleness: The Possibilities of General-Purpose Learning Algorithms applied to Parallel Rule Based Systems," in Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach, vol. 2, R. Michalski, J. Carbonell, and T. Mitchell, Editors, 593-623. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Holland, J. H. and Reitman, J. S. (1978). "Cognitive Systems Based on Adaptive Algorithms," in Pattern Directed Inference Systems, D. A. Waterman and F. Hayes-Roth, Editors, 313-329. Academic Press, New York.

Hopfield, J. J. (1982). "Neural Networks and Physical Systems with Emergent Collective Computational Abilities," Proc. National Academy Sciences, USA, 79, 2445-2558.

Hopfield, J. J. (1984). "Neurons with Graded Response have Collective Computational Properties like Those of Two-State Neurons," Proc. National Academy Sciences, USA, 81, 3088-3092.

Hopfield, J. J. (1987). "Learning Algorithms and Probability Distributions in Feed-Forward and Feed-Back Networks," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 84, 8429-8433.

Hopfield, J. J. (1990). "The Effectiveness of Analogue 'Neural Network' Hardware," Network: Computation in Neural Systems, 1(1), 27-40.

Hopfield, J. J. and Tank, (1985). "Neural Computation of Decisions in Optimization Problems," Biological Cybernetics, 52, 141-152.

Hopfield, J. J., Feinstein, D. I., and Palmer, R. G. (1993). " "Unlearning" Has a Stabilizing Effect in Collective Memories," Nature, 304, 158-159.

Hoptroff, R. G. and Hall, T. J. (1989). "Learning by Diffusion for Multilayer Perceptron," Electronic Letters, 25(8), 531-533.

Hornbeck, R. W. (1975). Numerical Methods. Quantum, New York.

Hornik, K. (1991). "Approximation Capabilities of Multilayer Feedforward Networks," Neural Networks, 4(2), 251-257.

Hornik, K. (1993). "Some New Results on Neural Network Approximation," Neural Networks, 6(8), 1069-1072.

Hornik, K., Stinchcombe, M., and White, H. (1989). "Multilayer Feedforward Networks are Universal Approximators," Neural Networks, 2(5), 359-366.

Hornik, K., Stinchcombe, M., and White, H. (1990). "Universal Approximation of an Unknown Mapping and its Derivatives Using Multilayer Feedforward Networks," Neural Networks, 3(5), 551-560.

Horowitz, L. L. and Senne, K. D. (1981). "Performance Advantage of Complex LMS for Controlling Narrow-Band Adaptive Arrays," IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems, CAS-28, 562-576.

Hoshino, T., Yonekura, T., Matsumoto, T., and Toriwaki, J. (1990). "Studies of PCA Realized by 3-Layer Neural Networks Realizing Identity Mapping (in Japanese)," PRU90-54, 7-14.

Hoskins, J. C., Lee, P., and Chakravarthy, S. V. (1993). "Polynomial Modeling Behavior in Radial Basis Function Networks," in Proc. World Congress on Neural Networks (Portland 1993), vol. IV, 693-699. LEA, Hillsdale.

Householder, A. S. (1964). The Theory of Matrices in Numerical Analysis. Blaisdel, New York. (Reprinted, 1975, by Dover, New York.)

Hu, S. T. (1965). Threshold Logic. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Huang, W. Y. and Lippmann, R. P. (1988). "Neural Nets and Traditional Classifiers," in Neural Information Processing Systems (Denver 1987), D. Z. Anderson, Editor. American Institute of Physics, New York, 387-396.

Huang, Y. and Schultheiss, P. M. (1963). "Block Quantization of Correlated Gaussian Random Variables," IEEE Trans. Commun. Syst., CS-11, 289-296.

Huber, P. J. (1981). Robust Statistics. Wiley, New York.

Hudak, M. J. (1992). "RCE Classifiers: Theory and Practice," Cybernetics and Systems: An International Journal, 23, 483-515.

Hueter, G. J. (1988). "Solution of the Traveling Salesman Problem with an Adaptive Ring," in IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1988), vol. I, 85-92. IEEE, New York.

Hui, S. and ak, S. H. (1992). "Dynamical Analysis of the Brain-State-in-a-Box Neural Models," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 3, 86-89.

Hui, S., Lillo, W. E. and ak, S. H. (1993). "Dynamics and Stability Analysis of the Brain-State-in-a-Box (BSB) Neural Models," in Associative Neural Memories: Theory and Implementation, M. H. Hassoun, Editor. Oxford Univ. Press, NY.

Hush, D. R., Salas, J. M., and Horne, B. (1991). "Error Surfaces for Multi-layer Perceptrons," in International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Seattle 1991), vol. I, 759-764, IEEE, New York.

Irie, B. and Miyake, S. (1988). "Capabilities of Three-Layer Perceptrons," IEEE Int. Conf. Neural Networks, vol. I, 641-648.

Ito, Y. (1991). "Representation of Functions by Superpositions of Step or Sigmoid Function and Their Applications to Neural Network Theory," Neural Networks, 4(3), 385-394.

Jacobs, R. A. (1988). "Increased Rates of Convergence Through Learning Rate Adaptation," Neural Networks, 1(4), 295-307.

Johnson, D. S., Aragon, C. R., McGeoch, L. A., and Schevon, C. (1989). "Optimization by Simulated Annealing: An Experimental Evaluation; Part I, Graph Partitioning," Operations Research, 37(6), 865-892.

Johnson, D. S., Aragon, C. R., McGeoch, L. A., and Schevon, C. (1990a). "Optimization by Simulated Annealing: An Experimental Evaluation; Part II, Graph Coloring and Number Partitioning," Operations Research, 39(3), 378-406.

Johnson, R. A. and Wichern, D. W. (1988). Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis (2nd edition), Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Jones, R. D., Lee, Y. C., Barnes, C. W., Flake, G. W., Lee, K., Lewis, P. S., and Qian, S. (1990). "Function Approximation and Time Series Prediction with Neural Networks," in Proc. Intl. Joint Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1990), vol. I, 649-666. IEEE Press, New York.

Judd, J. S. (1987). "Learning in Networks is Hard," in IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), M. Caudill and C. Butler, Editors, vol. II, 685-692. IEEE, New York.

Judd, J. S. (1990). Neural Network Design and the Complexity of Learning. MIT Press, Cambridge.

Kadirkamanathan, V., Niranjan, M., and Fallside, F. (1991). "Sequential Adaptation of Radial Basis Function Neural Networks and its Application to Time-Series Prediction," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3 (Denver 1990) R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky, Editors, 721-727. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Kamimura, R. (1993). "Minimum Entropy Method for the Improvement of Selectivity and Interpretability," in Proc. World Congress on Neural Networks (Portland 1993), vol. III, 512-519. LEA, Hillsdale.

Kanerva, P. (1988). Sparse Distributed Memory. Bradford/MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Kanerva, P. (1993). "Sparse Distributed Memory and Other Models," in Associative Neural Memories: Theory and Implementation, M. H. Hassoun, Editor, 50-76. Oxford University Press, New York.

Kanter, I. and Sompolinsky, H. (1987). "Associative Recall of Memory Without Errors," Phys. Rev. A., 35, 380-392.

Karhunen, J. (1994). "Optimization Criteria and Nonlinear PCA Neural Networks," IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, (Orlando 1994), vol. XXX, XXXpage numbersXXX, IEEE Press.

Karhunen, K. (1947). "Uber lineare methoden in der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung," Annales Academiae Scientiarium Fennicae, A, 37(1), 3-79, (translated by RAND Corp., Santa Monica, CA, Rep. T-131, 1960).

Karmarkar, N. (1984). "A New Polynomial Time Algorithm for Linear Programming," Combinatorica, 1, 373-395.

Karnaugh, M. (1953). "A Map Method for Synthesis of Combinatorial Logic Circuits," Transactions AIEE, Comm and Electronics, 72, Part I, 593-599.

Kashyap, R. L. (1966). "Synthesis of Switching Functions by Threshold Elements," IEEE Trans. Elec. Comp., EC-15(4), 619-628.

Kaszerman, P. (1963). "A Nonlinear Summation Threshold Device," IEEE Trans. Elec. Comp., EC-12, 914-915.

Katz, B. (1966). Nerve, Muscle and Synapse. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Keeler, J. and Rumelhart, D. E. (1992). "A Self-Organizing Integrated Segmentation and Recognition Neural Network," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 4 (Denver 1991), J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, and R. P. Lippmann, Editors, 496-503. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Keeler, J. D., Rumelhart, D. E., and Leow, W.-K. (1991). "Integrated Segmentation and Recognition of Handprinted Numerals," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3 (Denver 1990), R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky, Editors, 557-563. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Keesing, R. and Stork, D. G. (1991). "Evolution and Learning in Neural Networks: The Number and Distribution of Learning Trials Affect the Rate of Evolution," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3 (Denver 1990), R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky, Editors, 804-810. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Kelly, H. J. (1962). "Methods of Gradients," in Optimization Techniques with Applications to Aerospace Systems, C. Leitmann, Editor. Academic Press, New York.

Khachian, L. G. (1979). "A Polynomial Algorithm in Linear Programming," Soviet Mathematika Doklady, 20, 191-194.

Kirkpatrick, S. (1984). "Optimization by Simulated Annealing: Quantitative Studies," J. Statist. Physics, 34, 975-986.

Kirkpatrick, S., Gilatt, C. D., and Vecchi, M. P. (1983). "Optimization by Simulated Annealing," Science, 220, 671-680.

Kishimoto, K. and Amari, S. (1979). "Existence and Stability of Local Excitations in Homogeneous Neural Fields," J. Math. Biology, 7, 303-318.

Knapp, A. G. and Anderson, J. A. (1984). "A Theory of Categorization Based on Distributed Memory Storage," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9, 610-622.

Kohavi, Z. (1978). Switching and Finite Automata. McGraw-Hill, NY.

Kohonen, T. (1972). "Correlation Matrix Memories," IEEE Trans. Computers, C-21, 353-359.

Kohonen, T. (1974). "An Adaptive Associative Memory Principle," IEEE Trans. Computers, C-23, 444-445.

Kohonen, T. (1982a). "Self-Organized Formation of Topologically Correct Feature Maps," Biological Cybernetics, 43, 59-69.

Kohonen, T. (1982b). "Analysis of Simple Self-Organizing Process," Biological Cybernetics, 44, 135-140.

Kohonen, T. (1984). Self-Organization and Associative Memory. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Kohonen, T. (1988). "The 'Neural' Phonetic Typewriter," IEEE Computer Magazine, March 1988, 11-22.

Kohonen, T. (1989). Self-Organization and Associative Memory (3rd ed.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Kohonen, T. (1990). "Improved Versions of Learning Vector Quantization," in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1990), vol. I, 545-550. IEEE, New York.

Kohonen, T. (1991). "Self-Organizing Maps: Optimization Approaches," in Artificial Neural Networks, T. Kohonen, K. Makisara, O. Simula, and J. Kanga, Editors, 981-990. North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Kohonen, T. (1993a). "Things You Haven't Heard About the Self-Organizing Map," IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Francisco 1993), vol. III, 1147-1156. IEEE, New York.

Kohonen, T. (1993b). "Physiological Interpretation of the Self-Organizing Map Algorithm," Neural Networks, 6(7), 895-905.

Kohonen, T. and Ruohonen, M. (1973). "Representation of Associated Data by Matrix Operators," IEEE Trans. Computers, C-22, 701-702.

Kohonen, T., Barna, G., and Chrisley, R. (1988). "Statistical Pattern Recognition with Neural Networks: Benchmarking Studies," in IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1988), vol. I, 61-68. IEEE, New York.

Kolen, J. F. and Pollack, J. B. (1991). "Back Propagation is Sensitive to Initial Conditions," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3 (Denver 1990). R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky, Editors, 860-867. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Kolmogorov, A. N. (1957). "On the Representation of Continuous Functions of Several Variables by Superposition of Continuous Functions of one Variable and Addition," Doklady Akademii. Nauk USSR, 114, 679-681.

Komlós, J. (1967). On the Determinant of (0,1) Matricies. Studia Scientarium Mathematicarum Hungarica, 2, 7-21.

Komlós, J. and Paturi, R. (1988). "Convergence Results in an Associative Memory Model," Neural Networks, 3(2), 239-250.

Kosko, B. (1987). "Adaptive Bidirectional Associative Memories," Applied Optics, 26, 4947-4960.

Kosko, B. (1988). "Bidirectional Associative Memories," IEEE Trans. Sys. Man Cybern., SMC-18, 49-60.

Kosko, B. (1992). Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems: A Dynamical Systems Approach to Machine Intelligence. Prentice-Hall, Englewood.

Kramer, A. H. and Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A. (1989). "Efficient Parallel Learning Algorithms for Neural Networks," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 1 (Denver 1988) D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 40-48. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Kramer, M. (1991). "Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis Using Autoassociative Neural Networks," AICHE Journal, 37, 233-243.

Krauth, W., Mézard, M., and Nadal, J.-P. (1988). "Basins of Attraction in a Perceptron Like Neural Network," Complex Systems, 2, 387-408.

Krekelberg, B. and Kok, J. N. (1993). "A Lateral Inhibition Neural Network that Emulates a Winner-Takes-All Algorithm," in Proc. of the European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks (Brussels 1993). M. Verleysen, Editor, 9-14. D facto, Brussels, Belgium.

Krishnan, T. (1966). "On the Threshold Order of Boolean Functions," IEEE Trans. Elec. Comp., EC-15, 369-372.

Krogh, A. and Hertz, J. A. (1992). "A Simple Weight Decay Can Improve Generalization," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 4 (Denver 1991), J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, and R. P. Lippmann, Editors, 950-957. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Kruschke, J. K. and Movellan, J. R. (1991). "Benefits of Gain: Speeded Learning and Minimal Hidden Layers in Back-Propagation Networks," IEEE Transactions on System, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-21(1), 273-280.

Kuczewski, R. M., Myers, M. H., and Crawford, W. J. (1987). "Exploration of Backward Error Propagation as a Self-Organizational Structure," IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), M. Caudill and C. Butler, Editors, vol. II, 89-95. IEEE, New York.

Kufudaki, O. and Horejs, J. (1990). "PAB: Parameters Adapting Backpropagation," Neural Network World, 1, 267-274.

Kühn, R., Bös, S., and van Hemmen, J. L. (1991). "Statistical Mechanics for Networks of Graded Response Neurons," Phy. Rev. A, 43, 2084-2087.

Kullback, S. (1959). Information Theory and Statistics. Wiley, New York.

Kung, S. Y. (1993). Digital Neural Networks. PTR Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Kuo, T. and Hwang, S. (1993). "A Genetic Algorithm with Disruptive Selection," Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Urbana-Champaign 1993), S. Forrest, Editor, 65-69. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Krková, V. (1992). "Kolmogorov's Theorem and Multilayer Neural Networks," Neural Networks, 5(3), 501-506.

Kushner, H. J. (1977). "Convergence of Recursive Adaptive and Identification Procedures Via Weak Convergence Theory," IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, AC-22(6), 921-930.

Kushner, H. J. and Clark, D. (1978). Stochastic Approximation Methods for Constrained and Unconstrained Systems. Springer, New York.

Lane, S. H., Handelman, D. A., and Gelfand, J. J. (1992). "Theory and Development of Higher Order CMAC Neural Networks," IEEE Control Systems Magazine, April 1992, 23-30.

Lang, K. J. and Witbrock, M. J. (1989). "Learning to Tell Two Spirals Apart," Proceedings of the 1988 Connectionists Models Summer Schools (Pittsburgh 1988), D. Touretzky, G. Hinton, and T. Sejnowski, Editors, 52-59. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Lapedes, A. S. and Farber, R. (1987). "Nonlinear Signal Processing Using Neural Networks: Prediction and System Modeling," Technical Report, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico.

Lapedes, A. and Farber, R. (1988). "How Neural Networks Works," in Neural Information Processing Systems (Denver 1987), D. Z. Anderson, Editor, 442-456. American Institute of Physics, New York.

Lapidus, L. E., Shapiro, E., Shapiro, S., and Stillman, R. E. (1961). "Optimization of Process Performance," AICHE Journal, 7, 288-294.

Lawler, E. L. and Wood, D. E. (1966). "Branch-and-bound methods: A Survey," Operations Research, 14(4). 699-719.

Lay, S.-R. and Hwang, J.-N. (1993). "Robust Construction of Radial Basis Function Networks for Classification," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Francisco 1993), vol. III, 1859-1864. IEEE, New York.

Le Cun, Y., Boser, B., Denker, J. S., Henderson, D., Howard, R. E., Hubbard, W., and Jackel, L. D. (1989). "Backpropagation Applied to Handwritten Zip Code Recognition," Neural Computation, 1(4), 541-551.

Le Cun, Y., Boser, B., Denker, J. S., Henderson, D., Howard, R. E., Hubbard, W., and Jackel, L. D. (1990). "Handwritten Digit Recognition with a Backpropagation Network," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2 (Denver 1989), D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 396-404. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Le Cun, Y., Kanter, I., and Solla, S. A. (1991a). "Second Order Properties of Error Surfaces: Learning Time and Generalization," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3 (Denver 1990), R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky, Editors, 918-924. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Le Cun, Y., Kanter, I., and Solla, S. A. (1991b). "Eigenvalues of Covariance Matrices: Application to Neural Network Learning," Phys. Rev. Lett., 66, 2396-2399.

Le Cun, Y., Simard, P. Y., and Pearlmutter, B. (1993). "Automatic Learning Rate Maximization by On-Line Estimation of the Hessian's Eigenvectors," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 5 (Denver 1992), S. J. Hanson, J. D. Cowan, and C. L. Giles, Editors, 156-163. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Lee, B. W. and Shen, B. J. (1991). "Hardware Annealing in Electronic Neural Networks," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, 38, 134-137.

Lee, B. W. and Sheu, B. J. (1993). "Parallel Hardware Annealing for Optimal Solutions on Electronic Neural Networks," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 4(4), 588-599.

Lee, S. and Kil, R. (1988). "Multilayer Feedforward Potential Function Networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE Second International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1988), vol. I, 161-171. IEEE, New York.

Lee, Y. (1991). "Handwritten Digit Recognition Using k-Nearest Neighbor, Radial-Basis Functions, and Backpropagation Neural Networks," Neural Computation, 3(3), 440-449.

Lee, Y. and Lippmann, R. P. (1990). "Practical Characteristics of Neural Networks and Conventional Pattern Classifiers on Artificial and Speech Problems," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2 (Denver 1989), D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 168-177. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Lee, Y., Oh, S.-H., and Kim, M. W. (1991). "The Effect of Initial Weights on Premature Saturation in Back-Propagation Learning," in International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Seattle 1991), vol. I, 765-770. IEEE, New York.

von Lehman, Paek, E. G., Liao, P. F., Marrakchi, A., and Patel, J. S. (1988). "Factors Influencing Learning by Back-Propagation," in IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1988), vol. I, 335-341. IEEE, New York.

Leshno, M., Lin, V. Y., Pinkus, A., and Schocken, S. (1993). "Multilayer Feedforward Networks with a Nonpolynomial Activation Function Can Approximate Any Function," Neural Networks, 6(6), 861-867.

Leung, C. S. and Cheung, K. F. (1991). "Householder Encoding for Discrete Bidirectional Associative Memory," in Proc. Int. Conference on Neural Networks (Singapore 1991), 237-241.

Levin, A. V. and Narendra, K. S. (1992). "Control of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Using Neural Networks, Part II: Observability and Identification," Technical Report 9116, Center for Systems Science, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT.

Lewis II, P. M. and Coates, C. L. (1967). Threshold Logic. John Wiley, New York, NY.

Light, W. A. (1992a). "Ridge Functions, Sigmoidal Functions and Neural Networks," in Approximation Theory VII, E. W. Cheney, C. K. Chui, and L. L. Schumaker, Editors, 163-206. Academic Press, Boston.

Light, W. A. (1992b). "Some Aspects of Radial Basis Function Approximation," in Approximation Theory, Spline Functions, and Applications, S. P. Singh, Editor, NATO ASI Series, 256, 163-190. Klawer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.

Ligthart, M. M., Aarts, E. H. L., and Beenker, F. P. M. (1986). "Design-for-Testability of PLA's Using Statistical Cooling," in Proc. ACM/IEEE 23rd Design Automation Conference (Las Vegas 1986), 339-345.

Lin, J.-N. and Unbehauen, R. (1993). "On the Realization of a Kolmogorov Network," Neural Computation, 5(1), 21-31.

Linde, Y., Buzo, A., and Gray, R. M. (1980). "An Algorithm for Vector Quantizer Design," IEEE Trans. on Communications, COM-28, 84-95.

Linsker, R. (1986). "From Basic Network Principles to Neural Architecture," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 83, 7508-7512, 8390-8394, 8779-8783.

Linsker, R. (1988). "Self-Organization in a Perceptual Network," Computer, March 1988, 105-117.

Lippmann, R. P. (1987). "An Introduction to Computing with Neural Nets," IEEE Magazine on Accoustics, Signal, and Speech Processing (April), 4, 4-22.

Lippmann, R. P. (1989). "Review of Neural Networks for Speech Recognition," Neural Computation, 1(1), 1-38.

Little, W. A. (1974). "The Existence of Persistent States in the Brain," Math Biosci., 19, 101-120.

Ljung, L. (1977). "Analysis of Recursive Stochastic Algorithms," IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, AC-22(4), 551-575.

Ljung, L. (1978). "Strong Convergence of Stochastic Approximation Algorithm," Annals of Statistics, 6(3), 680-696.

Lo, Z.-P., Yu, Y., and Bavarian, B. (1993). "Analysis of the Convergence Properties of Topology Preserving Neural Networks," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 4(2), 207-220.

Loève, M. (1963). Probability Theory, 3rd edition, Van Nostrand, New York.

Logar, A. M., Corwin, E. M., and Oldham, W. J. B. (1993). "A Comparison of Recurrent Neural Network Learning Algorithms," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Francisco 1993), vol. II, 1129-1134. IEEE, New York.

Luenberger, D. G. (1969). Optimization by Vector Space Methods. John Wiley, New York, NY.

Macchi, O. and Eweda, E. (1983). "Second-Order Convergence Analysis of Stochastic Adaptive Linear Filtering," IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, AC-28(1), 76-85.

Mackey, D. J. C. and Glass, L. (1977). "Oscillation and Chaos in Physiological Control Systems," Science, 197, 287-289.

MacQueen, J. (1967). "Some Methods for Classification and Analysis of Multivariate Observations," in Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematics, Statistics, and Probability, L. M. LeCam and J. Neyman, Editors, 281-297. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Magnus, J. R. and Neudecker, H. (1988). Matrix Differential Calculus with Applications in Statistics and Econometrics. Wiley, Chichester.

Makram-Ebeid, S., Sirat, J.-A., and Viala, J.-R. (1989). "A Rationalized Back-Propagation Learning Algorithm," in International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Washington 1989), vol. II, 373-380. IEEE, New York.

von der Malsberg, C. (1973). "Self-Organizing of Orientation Sensitive Cells in the Striate Cortex," Kybernetick, 14, 85-100.

Mano, M. M. (1979). Digital Logic and Computer Design, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Mao, J. and Jain, A. K. (1993). "Regularization Techniques in Artificial Neural Networks," in Proc. World Congress on Neural Networks (Portland 1993), vol. IV, 75-79. LEA, Hillsdale.

Marchand, M., Golea, M., and Rujan, P. (1990). "A Convergence Theorem for Sequential Learning in Two-Layer Perceptrons," Europhysics Letters, 11, 487-492.

Marcus, C. M. and Westervelt, R. M. (1989). "Dynamics of Iterated-Map Neural Networks," Physical Review A, 40(1), 501-504.

Marcus, C. M., Waugh, F. R., and Westervelt, R. M. (1990). "Associative Memory in an Analog Iterated-Map Neural Network," Physical Review A, 41(6), 3355-3364.

Marr, D. (1969). "A Theory of Cerebellar Cortex," J. Physiol. (London), 202, 437-470.

Martin, G. L. (1990). "Integrating Segmentation and Recognition Stages for Overlapping Handprinted Characters," MCC Tech. Rep. ACT-NN-320-90, Austin, Texas.

Martin, G. L. (1993). "Centered-Object Integrated Segmentation and Recognition of Overlapping Handprinted Characters," Neural Networks, 5(3), 419-429.

Martin, G. L., and Pittman, J. A. (1991). "Recognizing Hand-Printed Letters and Digits Using Backpropagation Learning," Neural Computation, 3(2), 258-267.

Mays, C. H. (1964). "Effects of Adaptation Parameters on Convergence Time and Tolerance for Adaptive Threshold Elements," IEEE Trans. Elec. Comp., EC-13, 465-468.

McCulloch, J. L. and Pitts, W. (1943). "A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity," Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 5, 115-133.

McEliece, R. J., Posner, E. C., Rodemich, E. R., and Venkatesh, S. S. (1987). "The Capacity of the Hopfield Associative Memory," IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, IT-33, 461-482.

McInerny, J. M., Haines, K. G., Biafore, S., and Hecht-Nielsen, R. (1989). "Backpropagation Error Surfaces Can Have Local Minima," in International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Washington 1989), vol. II, 627. IEEE, New York.

Mead, C. (1991). "Neuromorphic Electronic Systems," Aerospace and Defense Science, 10(2), 20-28.

Medgassy, P. (1961). Decomposition of Superposition of Distributed Functions. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest.

Megiddo, N. (1986). "On the Complexity of Polyhedral Separability," Tech. Rep. RJ 5252, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA.

Mel, B. W. and Omohundro, S. M. (1991). "How Receptive Field Parameters Affect Neural Learning," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3 (Denver 1990), R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, And D. S. Touretzky, Editors, 757-763. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Metropolis, N., Rosenbluth, A., Teller, A., and Teller, E. (1953). "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines," J. Chemical Physics, 21(6), 1087-1092.

Mézard, M. and Nadal, J.-P. (1989). "Learning in Feedforward Layered Networks: The Tiling Algorithm," Journal of Physics A, 22, 2191-2204.

Micchelli, C. A. (1986). "Interpolation of Scattered Data: Distance and Conditionally Positive Definite Functions," Constructive Approximation, 2, 11-22.

Miller, G. F., Todd, P. M., and Hedg, S. U. (1989). "Designing Neural Networks Using Genetic Algorithms," in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Arlington 1989), J. D. Schaffer, Editor, 379-384. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Miller, W. T., Sutton, R. S., and Werbos, P. J., Editors (1990a). Neural Networks for Control. MIT Press, Cambridge.

Miller, W. T., Box, B. A., and Whitney, E. C. (1990b). "Design and Implementation of a High Speed CMAC Neural Network Using Programmable CMOS Logic Cell Arrays," Report No. ECE.IS.90.01, University of New Hampshire.

Miller, W. T., Glanz, F. H., and Kraft, L. G. (1990c). "CMAC: An Associative Neural Network Alternative to Backpropagation," Proc. IEEE, 78(10), 1561-1657.

Miller, W. T., Hewes, R. P., Glanz, F. H., and Kraft, L. G. (1990d). "Real-Time Dynamic Control of an Industrial Manipulator Using a Neural-Network-Based Learning Controller," IEEE Trans. Robotics Automation, 6, 1-9.

Minsky, M. and Papert, S. (1969). Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Møller, M. F. (1990). "A Scaled Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Fast Supervised Learning," Technical Report PB-339, Computer Science Department, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.

Montana, D. J. and Davis, L. (1989). "Training Feedforward Networks Using Genetic Algorithms," in Eleventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (Detroit 1989), N. S. Sridhara, Editor, 762-767. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Moody, J. (1989). "Fast Learning in Multi-Resolution Hierarchies," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems I (Denver 1988), D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 29-39. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Moody, J. and Darken, C. (1989a). "Learning with Localized Receptive Fields," in Proceedings of the 1988 Connectionist Models Summer School (Pittsburgh 1988), D. Touretzky, G. Hinton, and T. Sejnowski, Editors, 133-143. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Moody, J. and Darken, C. (1989b). "Fast Learning in Networks of Locally-Tuned Processing Units," Neural Computation, 1(2), 281-294.

Moody, J. and Yarvin, N. (1992). "Networks with Learned Unit Response Functions," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 4 (Denver 1991), J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, and R. P. Lippmann, Editors, 1048-1055. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Moore, B. (1989). "ART1 and Pattern Clustering," in Proceedings of the 1988 Connectionists Models Summer Schools (Pittsburgh 1988), D. Touretzky, G. Hinton, and T. Sejnowski, Editors, 174-185. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Morgan, N. and Bourlard, H. (1990). "Generalization and Parameter Estimation in Feedforward Nets: Some Experiments," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2 (Denver 1989), D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 630-637. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Morita, M. (1993). "Associative Memory with Nonmonotone Dynamics," Neural Networks, 6(1), 115-126.

Morita, M., Yoshizawa, S., and Nakano, K. (1990a). "Analysis and Improvement of the Dynamics of Autocorrelation Associative Memory," Trans. Institute Electronics, Information and Communication Engrs., J73-D-III(2), 232-242.

Morita, M., Yoshizawa, S., and Nakano, K. (1990b). "Memory of Correlated Patterns by Associative Neural Networks with Improved Dynamics," in Proc. INNC '90, Paris, vol. 2, 868-871.

Mosteller, F. and Tukey, J. (1980). Robust Estimation Procedures. Addison-Wesley, New York.

Mosteller, F., Rourke, R. E., and Thomas Jr., G. B. (1970). Probability with Statistical Applications, 2nd edition. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Roy, A., Kim, L. S., and Govil, S. (1993). "A Polynomial Time Algorithm for Generating Neural Networks for Pattern Classification: Its Stability Properties and Some Test Results," Neural Computation, 5(2), 317-330.

Muroga, S. (1959). "The Principle of Majority Decision Logical Elements and the Complexity of their Circuits," Proc. Int. Conf. on Information Processing, Paris, 400-407.

Muroga, S. (1965). "Lower Bounds of the Number of Threshold Functions and a Maximum Weight," IEEE Trans. Elect. Comp., EC-14(2), 136-148.

Muroga, S. (1971). Threshold Logic and its Applications. John Wiley Interscience, New York, NY.

Musavi, M. T., Ahmed, W., Chan, K. H., Faris, K. B., and Hummels, D. M. (1992). "On the Training of Radial Basis Function Classifiers," Neural Networks, 5(4), 595-603.

Nakano, K. (1972). "Associatron: A Model of Associative Memory," IEEE Trans. Sys. Man Cybern., SMC-2, 380-388.

Narayan, S. (1993). "ExpoNet: A Generalization of the Multi-Layer Perceptron Model," in Proc. World Congress on Neural Networks (Portland 1993), vol. III, 494-497. LEA, Hillsdale.

Narendra, K. S. and Parthasarathy, K. (1990). "Identification and Control of Dynamical Systems Using Neural Networks," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 1(1), 4-27.

Narendra, K. S. and Wakatsuki, K. (1991). "A Comparative Study of Two Neural Network Architectures for the Identification and Control of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems," Technical Report, Center for Systems Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT.

Nerrand, O., Roussel-Ragot, P., Personnaz, L., Dreyfus, G., and Marcos, S. (1993). "Neural Networks and Nonlinear Adaptive Filtering: Unifying Concepts and New Algorithms," Neural Computation, 5(2), 165-199.

Newman, C. (1988). "Memory Capacity in Neural Network Models: Rigorous Lower Bounds," Neural Networks, 3(2), 223-239.

Nguyen, D. and Widrow, B. (1989). "The Truck Backer-Upper: An Example of Self-Learning in Neural Networks," in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Washington, DC 1989), vol. II, 357-362.

Nilsson, N. J. (1965). Learning Machines. McGraw-Hill, New York. Reissued as The Mathematical Foundations of Learning Machines. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1990.

Niranjan, M. and Fallside, F. (1988). "Neural Networks and Radial Basis Functions in Classifying Static Speech Patterns," Technical Report CUEDIF-INFENG17R22, Engineering Department, Cambridge University.

Nishimori, H. and Opri, I. (1993). "Retrieval Process of an Associative Memory with a General Input-Output Function," Neural Networks, 6(8), 1061-1067.

Nolfi, S., Elman, J. L., and Parisi, D. (1990). "Learning and Evolution in Neural Networks," CRL Technical Report 9019, University of California, San Diego.

Novikoff, A. B. J. (1962). "On Convergence Proofs of Perceptrons," Proc. Symp. on Math. Theory of Automata (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Brooklyn, NY.), 615-622

Nowlan, S. J. (1988). "Gain Variation in Recurrent Error Propagation Networks," Complex Systems, 2, 305-320.

Nowlan, S. J. (1990). "Maximum Likelihood Competitive Learning," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2 (Denver 1989). D. Touretzky, Editor, 574-582. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Nowlan, S. J. and Hinton, G. E. (1992a). "Adaptive Soft Weight Tying using Gaussian Mixtures," in Advance in Neural Information Processing Systems 4 (Denver, 1991), J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, and R. P. Lippmann, Editors, 993-1000. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Nowlan, S. J., and Hinton, G. E. (1992b). "Simplifying Neural Networks by Soft Weight-Sharing," Neural Computation, 4(4), 473-493.

Oja, E. (1982). "A Simplified Neuron Model As a Principal Component Analyzer," Journal of Mathematical Biology, 15, 267-273.

Oja, E. (1983). Subspace Methods of Pattern Recognition. Research Studies Press and John Wiley. Letchworth, England.

Oja, E. (1989). "Neural Networks, Principal Components, and Subspaces," International Journal of Neural Systems, 1(1), 61-68.

Oja, E. (1991). "Data Compression, Feature Extraction, and Autoassociation in Feedforward Neural Networks," Artificial Neural Networks, Proceedings of the 1991 International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (Espoo 1991), T. Kohonen, K. Mäkisara, O. Simula, and J. Kangas, Editors, vol. I, 737-745. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam.

Oja, E. and Karhunen, J. (1985). "On Stochastic Approximation of the Eigenvectors of the Expectation of a Random Matrix," Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 106, 69-84.

Okajima, K., Tanaka, S., and Fujiwara, S. (1987). "A Heteroassociative Memory Network with Feedback Connection," in Proc. IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), M. Caudill & C. Butler, Editors, vol. II, 711-718.

Paek, E. G. and Psaltis, D. (1987). "Optical Associative Memory Using Fourier Transform Holograms," Optical Engineering, 26, 428-433.

Pao, Y. H. (1989). Adaptive Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Papadimitriou, C. H. and Steiglitz (1982). Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Complexity. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Park, J. and Sandberg, I. W. (1991). "Universal Approximation Using Radial-Basis-Function Networks," Neural Computation, 3(2), 246-257.

Park, J. and Sandberg, I. W. (1993). "Approximation and Radial-Basis-Function Networks," Neural Computation, 5(2), 305-316.

Parker, D. B. (1985). "Learning Logic," Technical Report TR-47, Center for Computational Research in Economics and Management Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

Parker, D. B. (1987). "Optimal Algorithms for Adaptive Networks: Second Order Backprop, Second Order Direct Propagation, and Second Order Hebbian Learning," in IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), M. Caudill and C. Butler, Editors, vol. II, 593-600. IEEE, New York.

Parks, M. (1987). "Characterization of the Boltzmann Machine Learning Rate," in IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), M. Caudill and C. Butler, vol. III, 715-719. New York, IEEE.

Parks, P. C. and Militzer, J. (1991). "Improved Allocation of Weights for Associative Memory Storage in Learning Control Systems, Proceedings of the 1st IFAC Symposium on Design Methods of Control Systems, col. II, 777-782. Pergamon Press, Zurich.

Parzen, E. (1962). "On Estimation of a Probability Density Function and Mode," Ann. Math. Statist., 33, 1065-1076.

Pearlmutter, B. A. (1988). "Learning State Space Trajectories in Recurrent Neural Networks," Technical Report CMU-CS-88-191, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Pearlmutter, B. A. (1989a). "Learning State Space Trajectories in Recurrent Neural Networks," in International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Washington 1989), vol. II, 365-372. IEEE, New York.

Pearlmutter, B. A. (1989b). "Learning State Space Trajectories in Recurrent Neural Networks," Neural Computation, 1(2), 263-269.

Penrose, R. (1955). "A Generalized Inverse for Matrices," Proc. Cambridge Philosophical Society, 51, 406-413.

Peretto, P. (1984). "Collective Properties of Neural Networks: A Statistical Physics Approach," Biological Cybernetics, 50, 51-62.

Personnaz, L., Guyon, I., and Dreyfus, G. (1986). "Collective Computational Properties of Neural Networks: New Learning Mechanisms," Physical Review A, 34(5), 4217-4227.

Peterson, C. and Anderson, J. R. (1987). "A Mean Field Theory Learning Algorithm for Neural Networks," Complex Systems, 1, 995-1019.

Peterson, G. E. and Barney, H. L. (1952). "Control Methods used in a Study of the Vowels," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 24(2), 175-184.

Pflug, G. Ch. (1990). "Non-Asymptotic Confidence Bounds for Stochastic Approximation Algorithms with Constant Step Size," Mathematik, 110, 297-314.

Pineda, D. A. (1988). "Dynamics and Architectures for Neural Computation," Journal of Complexity, 4, 216-245.

Pineda, F. J. (1987). "Generalization of Back-Propagation to Recurrent Neural Networks," Physical Review Letters, 59, 2229-2232.

Platt, J. (1991). "A Resource-Allocating Network for Function Interpolation," Neural Computation, 3(2), 213-225.

Plaut, D. S., Nowlan, S., and Hinton, G. (1986). "Experiments on Learning by Back Propagation," Technical Report CMU-CS-86-126, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Poggio, T. and Girosi, F. (1989). "A Theory of Networks for Approximation and Learning," A. I. Memo 1140, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA.

Poggio, T. and Girosi, F. (1990a). "Networks for Approximation and Learning," Proceedings of the IEEE, 78(9), 1481-1497.

Poggio, T. and Girosi, F. (1990b). "Regularization Algorithms for Learning that are Equivalent to Multilayer Networks," Science, 247, 978-982.

Polak, E. and Ribiére, G. (1969). "Note sur la Convergence de Methods de Directions Conjugées," Revue Francaise d'Informatique et Recherche Operationnalle, 3, 35-43.

Polyak, B. T. (1987). Introduction to Optimization. Optimization Software, Inc., New York.

Polyak, B. T. (1990). "New Method of Stochastic Approximation Type," Automat. Remote Control, 51, 937-946.

Pomerleau, D. A. (1991). "Efficient Training of Artificial Neural Networks for Autonomous Navigation," Neural Computation, 3(1), 88-97.

Pomerleau, D. A. (1993). Neural Network Perception for Mobile Robot Guidance. Kluwer, Boston.

Powell, M. J. D. (1987). "Radial Basis Functions for Multivariate Interpolation: A Review," in Algorithms for the Approximation of Functions and Data, J. C. Mason and M. G. Cox, Editors, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Press, W. H., Flannery, B. P., Teukolsky, S. A. and Vetterling, W. T. (1986). Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Psaltis, D. and Park, C. H. (1986). "Nonlinear Discriminant Functions and Associative Memories," in Neural Networks for Computing, J. S. Denker, Editor, Proc. American Inst. Physics, vol. 151, 370-375.

Qi, X. and Palmieri, F. (1993). "The Diversification Role of Crossover in the Genetic Algorithms," Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Urbana-Champaign 1993), S. Forrest, Editor, 132-137. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Qian, N. and Sejnowski, T. (1989). "Learning to Solve Random-Dot Stereograms of Dense Transparent Surfaces with Recurrent Back-Propagation," in Proceedings of the 1988 Connectionist Models Summer School (Pittsburgh 1988), D. Touretzky, G. Hinton, and T. Sejnowski, Editors, 435-443. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Rao, C. R. and Mitra, S. K. (1971). Generalized Inverse of Matrices and its Applications. John Wiley, New York.

Reed, R. (1993). "Pruning Algorithms - A Survey," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 4(5), 740-747.

Reeves, C. R. (1993). "Using Genetic Algorithms with Small Populations," Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Urbana-Champaign 1993), S. Forrest, Editor, 92-99. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Reilly, D. L. and Cooper, L. N. (1990). "An Overview of Neural Networks: Early Models to Real World Systems," in An Introduction to Neural and Electronic Networks, S. F. Zornetzer, J. L. Davis, and C. Lau, Editors. Academic Press, San Diego.

Reilly, D. L., Cooper, L. N., and Elbaum, C. (1982). "A Neural Model for Category Learning," Biological Cybernetics, 45, 35-41.

Rezgui, A. and Tepedelenlioglu, N. (1990). "The Effect of the Slope of the Activation Function on the Backpropagation Algorithm," in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Washington, DC 1990), M. Caudill, Editor, vol. I, 707-710. IEEE, New York.

Ricotti, L. P., Ragazzini, S., and Martinelli, G. (1988). "Learning of Word Stress in a Sub-Optimal Second Order Back-Propagation Neural Network," in IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), M. Caudill and C. Butler, Editors, vol. I, 355-361. IEEE, New York.

Ridgway III, W. C. (1962). "An Adaptive Logic System with Generalizing Properties," Technical Report 1556-1, Stanford Electronics Labs., Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Riedel, H. and Schild, D. (1992). "The Dynamics of Hebbian Synapses can be Stabilized by a Nonlinear Decay Term," Neural Networks, 5(3), 459-463.

Ritter, H. and Schulten, K. (1986). "On the Stationary State of Kohonen's Self-Organizing Sensory Mapping," Biol. Cybernetics, 54, 99-106.

Ritter, H. and Schulten, K. (1988a). "Kohonen's Self-Organizing Maps: Exploring Their Computational Capabilities," in IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1988), vol. I, 109-116. IEEE, New York.

Ritter, H. and Schulten, K. (1988b). "Convergence Properties of Kohonen's Topology Conserving Maps: Fluctuations, Stability, and Dimension Selection," Biol. Cybernetics, 60, 59-71.

Robinson, A. J. and Fallside, F. (1988). "Static and Dynamic Error Propagation Networks with Application to Speech Coding," in Neural Information Processing Systems (Denver 1987), D. Z. Anderson, Editor, 632-541. American Institute of Physics, New York.

Robinson, A. J., Niranjan, M., and Fallside, F. (1989). "Generalizing the Nodes of the Error Propagation Network," (abstract) in Proc. Int. Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Washington, D. C. 1989), vol. II, 582. IEEE, New York. Also, printed as Technical Report CUED/F-INFENG/TR.25, Cambridge University, Engineering Department, Cambridge, England.

Rohwer, R. (1990). "The 'Moving Targets' Training Algorithm," in Advances in Information Processing Systems 2 (Denver 1989), D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 558-565. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Romeo, F. I. (1989). Simulated Annealing: Theory and Applications to Layout Problems. Ph.D. Thesis, Memorandum UCB/ERL-M89/29, University of California at Berkeley. Berkeley, CA.

Rosenblatt, F. (1961). Principles of Neurodynamics: Perceptrons and the Theory of Brain Mechanisms. Spartan Press, Washington, D. C.

Rosenblatt, F. (1962). Principles of Neurodynamics: Perceptrons and the Theory of Brain Mechanisms. Spartan Books, Washington, DC.

Roy, A. and Govil, S. (1993). "Generating Radial Basis Function Net in Polynomial Time for Classification," in Proc. World Congress on Neural Networks (Portland 1993), vol. III, 536-539. LEA, Hillsdale.

Roy, A. and Mukhopadhyay, S. (1991). "Pattern Classification Using Linear Programming," ORSA J. Comput., 3(1), 66-80.

Roy, A., Kim, L. S., and Mukhopadhyay, S. (1993). "A Polynomial Time Algorithm for the Construction and Training of a Class of Multilayer Perceptrons," Neural Networks, 6(4), 535-545.

Rozonoer, L. I. (1969). "Random Logic Nets, I," Automat. Telemekh., 5, 137-147.

Rubner, J. and Tavan, P. (1989). "A Self-Organizing Network for Principal-Component Analysis," Europhysics Letters, 10, 693-698.

Rudin, W. (1964). Principles of Mathematical Analysis. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Rumelhart, D. E. (1989). "Learning and Generalization in Multilayer Networks," presentation given at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Neuro Computing, Architecture, and Applications (Les Arcs, France 1989).

Rumelhart, D. E. and Zipser, D. (1985). "Feature Discovery By Competitive Learning," Cognitive Science, 9, 75-112.

Rumelhart, D. E., McClelland, J. L. and the PDP Research Group. (1986a). Parallel Distributed Processing: Exploration in the Microstructure of Cognition, volume 1, MIT Press, Cambridge.

Rumelhart, D. E., Hinton, G. E., and Williams, R. J. (1986b). "Learning Internal Representations by Error Propagation," in Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, vol. I, D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, and the PDP Research Group. MIT Press, Cambridge (1986).

Rutenbar, R. A. (1989). "Simulated Annealing Algorithms: An Overview," IEEE Circuits Devices Magazine, 5(1). 19-26.

Saha, A. and Keeler, J. D. (1990). "Algorithms for Better Representation and Faster Learning in Radial Basis Function Networks," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2 (Denver 1989), D. Touretzky, Editor, 482-489. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Salamon, P., Nulton, J. D., Robinson, J., Petersen, J., Ruppeiner, G., and Liao, L. (1988). "Simulated Annealing with Constant Thermodynamic Speed," Computer Physics Communications, 49, 423-428.

Sanger, T. D. (1989). "Optimal Unsupervised Learning in a Single Layer Linear Feedforward Neural Network," Neural Networks, 2(6), 459-473.

Sato, M. (1990). "A Real Time Learning Algorithm for Recurrent Analog Neural Networks," Biological Cybernetics, 62, 237-241.

Sayeh, M. R. and Han, J. Y. (1987). "Pattern Recognition Using a Neural Network," Proc. SPIE, Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision, 848, 281-285.

Schaffer, J. D., Caruana, R. A., Eshelman, L. J., and Das, R. (1989). "A Study of Control Parameters Affecting Online Performance of Genetic Algorithms for Function Optimization," in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Genetic Algorithms and their Applications (Arlington 1989), J. D. Schaffer, Editor, 51-60. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Schoen, F. (1991). "Stochastic Techniques for Global Optimization: A Survey of Recent Advances," Journal of Global Optimization, 1, 207-228.

Schultz, D. G. and Gibson, J. E. (1962). "The Variable Gradient Method for Generating Liapunov Functions," Trans. IEE, 81(II), 203-210.

Schumaker, L. L. (1981). Spline Functions: Basic Theory. Wiley, New York.

Schwartz, D. B., Samalam, V. K., Solla, S. A., and Denker, J. S. (1990). "Exhaustive Learning," Neural Computation, 2(3), 374-385.

Scofield, C. L., Reilly, D. L., Elbaum, C., and Cooper, L. N. (1988). "Pattern Class Degeneracy in an Unrestricted Storage Density Memory," in Neural Information Processing Systems (Denver 1987), D. Z. Anderson, Editor, 674-682. American Institute of Physics, New York.

Sejnowski, T. J. and Rosenberg, C. R. (1987). "Parallel Networks that Learn to Pronounce English Text," Complex Systems, 1, 145-168.

Sejnowski, T. J., Kienker, P. k., and Hinton, G. (1986). "Learning Symmetry Groups with Hidden Units: Beyond the Perceptron," Physica, 22D, 260-275.

Shannon, C. E. (1938). "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits," Trans. of the AIEE, 57, 713-723.

Shaw, G. and Vasudevan, R. (1974). "Persistent States of Neural Networks and the Nature of Synaptic Transmissions," Math. Biosci., 21, 207-218.

Sheng, C. L. (1969). Threshold Logic. Academic Press, New York, NY.

Shiino, M. and Fukai, T. (1990). "Replica-Symmetric Theory of the Nonlinear Analogue Neural Networks," J. Phs. A, 23, L1009-L1017.

Shrödinger, E. (1946). Statistical Thermodynamics. Cambridge University Press, London.

Sietsma, J. and Dow, R. J. F. (1988). "Neural Net Pruning - Why and How," in IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1988), vol. I, 325-333. IEEE, New York.

Silva, F. M. and Almeida, L. B. (1990). "Acceleration Techniques for the Backpropagation Algorithm," Neural Networks, Europe Lecture Notes in Computer Science, L. B. Almeida and Wellekens, Editors, 110-119. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Simard, P. Y., Ottaway, M. B., and Ballard, D. H. (1988). "Analysis of Recurrent Backpropagation," Technical Report 253, Department of Computer Science, University of Rochester.

Simard, P. Y., Ottaway, M. B., and Ballard, D. H. (1989). "Analysis of Recurrent Backpropagation," in Proceedings of the 1988 Connectionist Models Summer School (Pittsburgh 1988), D. Touretzky, G. Hinton, and T. Sejnowski, Editors, 103-112. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Simeone, B., Editor (1989). Combinatorial Optimization. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Simpson, P. K. (1990). "Higher-Ordered and Intraconnected Bidirectional Associative Memory, IEEE Trans. System, Man, and Cybernetics, 20(3), 637-653.

Slansky, J. and Wassel, G. N. (1981). Pattern Classification and Trainable Machines. Springer-Verlag, New York.

van der Smagt, P. P. (1994). "Minimisation Methods for Training Feedforward Neural Networks," Neural Networks, 7(1), 1-11.

Smith, J. M. (1987). "When Learning Guides Evolution," Nature, 329, 761-762.

Smolensky, P. (1986). "Information Processing in Dynamical Systems: Foundations of Harmony Theory," in Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, vol. I, D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, and the PDP Research Group. MIT Press, Cambridge.

Snapp, R. R., Psaltis, D. and Venkatesh, S. S. (1991). "Asymptotic Slowing Down of the Nearest-Neighbor Classifier," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3 (Denver 1990), R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky, Editors, 932-938. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Solla, S. A., Levin, E., and Fleisher, M. (1988). "Accelerated Learning in Layered Neural Networks," Complex Systems, 2, 625-639.

Song, J. (1992). "Hybrid Genetic/Gradient Learning in Multi-Layer Artificial Neural Networks," Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Sontag, E. D. and Sussann, H. J. (1985). "Image Restoration and Segmentation Using Annealing Algorithm," in Proc. 24th Conference on Decision and Control (Ft. Lauderdale 1985), 768-773.

Soukoulis, C. M., Levin, K., and Grest, G. S. (1983). "Irreversibility and Metastability in Spin-Glasses. I. Ising Model," Physical Review, B28, 1495-1509.

Specht, D. F. (1990). "Probabilistic Neural Networks," Neural Networks, 3(1), 109-118.

Sperduti, A. and Starita, A. (1991). "Extensions of Generalized Delta Rule to Adapt Sigmoid Functions," Proceedings of the 13th Annual International Conference IEEE/EMBS, 1393-1394. IEEE, New York.

Sperduti, A. and Starita, A. (1993). "Speed Up Learning and Networks Optimization with Extended Back Propagation," Neural Networks, 6(3), 365-383.

Spitzer, A. R., Hassoun, M. H., Wang, C., and Bearden, F. (1990). "Signal Decomposition and Diagnostic Classification of the Electromyogram Using a Novel Neural Network Technique," in Proc. XIVth Ann. Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care (Washington D. C., 1990), R. A. Miller, Editor, 552-556. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos.

Spreecher, D. A. (1993). "A Universal Mapping for Kolmogorov's Superposition Theorem," Neural Networks, 6(8), 1089-1094.

Stent, G. S. (1973). "A Physiological Mechanism for Hebb's Postulate of Learning," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 70, 997-1001.

Stiles, G. S. and Denq, D-L. (1987). "A Quantitative Comparison of Three Discrete Distributed Associative Memory Models," IEEE Trans. Computers, C-36, 257-263.

Stinchcombe, M. and White, H. (1989). "Universal Approximations Using Feedforward Networks with Non-Sigmoid Hidden Layer Activation Functions," Proc. Int. Joint Conf. Neural Networks (Washington, D. C. 1989), vol. I, 613-617. SOS Printing, San Diego.

Stone, M. (1978). "Cross-Validation: A Review," Math. Operationsforsch Statistik, 9, 127-140.

Sudjianto, A. and Hassoun, M. (1994). "Nonlinear Hebbian Rule: A Statistical Interpretation," IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, (Orlando 1994), vol. XXX, XXXpage numbersXXX, IEEE Press.

Sun, G.-Z., Chen, H.-H., and Lee, Y.-C. (1992). "Green's Function Method for Fast On-Line Learning Algorithm of Recurrent Neural Networks," in Advances in Neural Information Processing 4 (Denver 1991), J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, and R. P. Lippmann, Editors, 317-324. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Sun, X. and Cheney, E. W. (1992). "The Fundamentals of Sets of Ridge Functions," Aequationes Math., 44, 226-235.

Suter, B. and Kabrisky, M. (1992). "On a Magnitude Preserving Iterative MAXnet Algorithm," Neural Computation, 4(2), 224-233.

Sutton, R. (1986). "Two Problems with Backpropagation and Other Steepest-Descent Learning Procedures for Networks," Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference on the Cognitive Science Society (Amherst 1986), 823-831. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale.

Sutton, R. S., Editor. (1992). Special Issue on Reinforcement Learning, Machine Learning, 8, 1-395.

Sutton, R. S., Barto, A. G., and Williams, R. J. (1991). "Reinforcement Learning is Direct Adaptive Optimal Control," in Proc. of the American Control Conference (Boston 1991), 2143-2146.

Szu, H. (1986). "Fast Simulated Annealing," in Neural Networks for Computing (Snowbird 1986), J. S. Denker, Editor, 420-425. American Institute of Physics, New York.

Takefuji, Y. and Lee, K. C. (1991). "Artificial Neural Network for Four-Coloring Map Problems and K-Colorability Problem," IEEE Transactions Circuits ad Systems, 38, 1991, 326-333.

Takens, F. (1981). "Detecting Strange Attractors in Turbulence," in Dynamical Systems and Turbulence. Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 898 (Warwick 1980), D. A. Rand and L.-S. Young, Editors, 366-381. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Takeuchi, A. and Amari, S.-I. (1979). "Formation of Topographic Maps and Columnar Microstructures," Biol. Cybernetics, 35, 63-72.

Tank, D. W. and Hopfield, J. J. (1986). "Simple "Neural" Optimization Networks: An A/D Converter, Signal Decision Circuit, and a Linear Programming Circuit," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, 33, 533-541.

Tank, D. W. and Hopfield, J. J. (1987). "Concentrating Information in Time: Analog Neural Networks with Applications to Speech Recognition Problems," in IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), M. Caudill and C. Butler, Editors, vol. IV, 455-468. IEEE, New York.

Tattersal, G. D., Linford, P. W., and Linggard, R. (1990). "Neural Arrays for Speech Recognition," in Speech and Language Processing, C. Wheddon and R. Linggard, Editors, 245-290. Chapman and Hall, London.

Tawel, R. (1989). "Does the Neuron 'Learn' Like the Synapse?" in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 1 (Denver 1988), D. S. Touretzky, Editor, 169-176. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Taylor, J. G. and Coombes, S. (1993). "Learning Higher Order Correlations," Neural Networks, 6(3), 423-427.

Tesauro, G. and Janssens, B. (1988). "Scaling Relationships in Back-Propagation Learning," Complex Systems, 2, 39-44.

Thierens, D. and Goldberg, D. (1993). "Mixing in Genetic Algorithms," Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Urbana-Champaign 1993), S. Forrest, Editor, 38-45. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Thorndike, E. L. (1911). Animal Intelligence. Hafner, Darien, CT.

Ticknor, A. J. and Barrett, H. (1987). "Optical Implementations of Boltzmann Machines," Optical Engineering, 26, 16-21.

Tishby, N., Levin, E., and Solla, S. A. (1989). "Consistent Inference of Probabilities in Layered Networks: Predictions and Generalization," in International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Washington 1989), vol. II, 403-410. IEEE, New York.

Tolat, V. (1990). "An Analysis of Kohonen's Self-Organizing Maps Using a System of Energy Functions," Biological Cybernetics, 64, 155-164.

Tollenaere, T. (1990). "SuperSAB: Fast Adaptive Back Propagation with Good Scaling Properties," Neural Networks, 3(5), 561-573.

Tompkins, C. B. (1956). "Methods of Steepest Descent," in Modern Mathematics for the Engineer, E. B. Beckenbach, Editor, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Törn, A. A. and ilinskas, A. (1989). Global optimization. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Tsypkin, Ya. Z. (1971). Adaptation and Learning in Automatic Systems. Translated by Z. J. Nikolic. Academic Press, New York. (First published in Russian language under the title Adaptatsia i obuchenie v avtomaticheskikh sistemakh. Nauka, Moskow 1968)

Turing, A. M. (1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, 237, 5-72.

Uesaka, G. and Ozeki, K. (1972). "Some Properties of Associative Type Memories," Journal of the Institute of Electrical and Communication Engineers of Japan, 55-D, 323-330.

Usui, S., Nakauchi, S., and Nakano, M. (1991). "Internal Color Representation Acquired by a Five-Layer Network," Artificial Neural Networks, Proceedings of the 1991 International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (Espoo 1991), T. Kohonen, K. Mäkisara, O. Simula, and J. Kangas, Editors, vol. I, 867-872. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam.

Vapnik, V. N. and Chervonenkis, A. Y. (1971). "On the Uniform Convergence of Relative Frequencies of Events to Their Probabilities," Theory of Probability and its Applications, 16(2), 264-280.

Veitch, E. W. (1952). " A Chart Method for Simplifying Truth Functions," Proc. of the ACM, 127-133.

Villiers, J. and Barnard, E. (1993). "Backpropagation Neural Nets with One and Two Hidden Layers," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 4(1), 136-141.

Vogl, T. P., Manglis, J. K., Rigler, A. K., Zink, W. T., and Alkon, D. L. (1988). "Accelerating the Convergence of the Back-propagation Method," Biological Cybernetics, 59, 257-263.

Vogt, M. (1993). "Combination of Radial Basis Function Neural Networks with Optimized Learning Vector Quantization," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Francisco 1993), vol. III, 1841-1846. IEEE, New York.

Waibel, A. (1989). "Modular Construction of Time-Delay Neural Networks for Speech Recognition," Neural Computation, 1, 39-46.

Waibel, A., Hanazawa, T., Hinton, G., Shikano, K., and Lang, K. (1989). "Phoneme Recognition Using Time-Delay Neural Networks," IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 37, 328-339.

Wang, C. (1991). A Robust System for Automated Decomposition of the Electromyogram Utilizing a Neural Network Architecture. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Wang, Y.-F., Cruz Jr., J. B., and Mulligan Jr., J. H. (1990). "Two Coding Strategies for Bidirectional Associative Memory," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 1(1), 81-92.

Wang, Y.-F., Cruz Jr., J. B., and Mulligan Jr., J. H. (1991). "Guaranteed Recall of All Training Pairs for Bidirectional Associative Memory," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 2(6), 559-567.

Wasan, M. T. (1969). Stochastic Approximation. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Watta, P. B. (1994). "A Coupled Gradient Network Approach for Static and Temporal Mixed Integer Optimization," Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Waugh, F. R., Marcus, C. M., and Westervelt, R. M. (1991). "Reducing Neuron Gain to Eliminate Fixed-Point Attractors in an Analog Associative Memory," Phys. Rev. A, 43, 3131-3142.

Waugh, F. R., Marcus, C. M., and Westervelt, R. M. (1993). "Nonlinear Dynamics of Analog Associative Memories," in Associative Neural Memories: Theory and Implementation, M. H. Hassoun, Editor, 197-211. Oxford University Press, New York.

Wegstein, J. H. (1958). "Accelerating Convergence in Iterative Processes," ACM Commun., 1(6), 9-13.

Weigend, A. S. and Gershenfeld, N. A. (1993). "Results of the Time Series Prediction Competition at the Santa Fe Institute," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Francisco 1993), vol. III, 1786-1793. IEEE, New York.

Weigend, A. S. and Gershenfeld, N. A., Editors (1994). Time Series Prediction: Forecasting the Future and Understanding the Past. Proc. of the NTAO Advanced Research Workshop on Comparative Time Series Analysis (Santa Fe 1992). Addison-Wesley, Reading MA.

Weigend, A. S., Rumelhart, D. E., and Huberman, B. A. (1991). "Generalization by Weight-Elimination with Application to Forecasting," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3 (Denver 1990), R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky, Editors, 875-882. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Weisbuch, G. and Fogelman-Soulié, F. (1985). "Scaling Laws for the Attractors of Hopfield Networks," Journal De Physique Lett., 46(14), L-623-L-630.

Werbos, P. (1974). "Beyond Regression: New Tools for Prediction and Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences," Ph.D. Dissertation, Committee on Applied Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

Werbos, P. J. (1988). "Generalization of Backpropagation with Application to Gas Market Model," Neural Networks, 1, 339-356.

Werntges, H. W. (1993). "Partitions of Unity Improve Neural Function Approximators," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Francisco 1993), vol. II, 914-918. IEEE, New York.

Wessels, L. F. A. and Barnard, E. (1992). "Avoiding False Local Minima by Proper Initialization of Connections," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 3(6), 899-905.

Wettschereck, D. and Dietterich, T. (1992). "Improving the Performance of Radial Basis Function Networks by Learning Center Locations," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 4 (Denver 1991), J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, and R. P. Lippmann, Editors, 1133-1140. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

White, H. (1989). "Learning in Artificial Neural Networks: A Statistical Perspective," Neural Networks, 1, 425-464.

White, S. A. (1975). "An Adaptive Recursive Digital Filter," in Proc. 9th Asilomar Conf. Circuits Syst. Comput. (San Francisco 1975), 21-25. Western Periodicals, North Hollywood, CA.

Whitley, D. and Hanson, T. (1989). "Optimizing Neural Networks Using Faster, More Accurate Genetic Search," in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (Arlington 1989), J. D. Schaffer, Editor, 391-396. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Widrow, B. (1987). "ADALINE and MADALINE - 1963," Plenary Speech, Proc. IEEE 1st Int. Conf. on Neural Networks (San Diego 1982), vol. I, 143-158.

Widrow, B. and Angell, J. B. (1962). "Reliable, Trainable Networks for Computing and Control," Aerospace Eng., 21 (September issue), 78-123.

Widrow, B. and Hoff Jr., M. E. (1960). "Adaptive Switching Circuits," IRE Western Electric Show and Convention Record, Part 4, 96-104.

Widrow, B. and Lehr, M. A. (1990). "30 Years of Adaptive Neural Networks: Perceptron, Madaline, and Backpropagation," Proc. IEEE, 78(9), 1415-1442.

Widrow, B. and Stearns, S. D. (1985). Adaptive Signal Processing, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Widrow, B., Gupta, N. K., and Maitra, S. (1973). "Punish/Reward: Learning with a Critic in Adaptive Threshold Systems," IEEE Trans. on System, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-3, 455-465.

Widrow, B., McCool, J. M., Larimore, M. G., and Johnson Jr., C. R. (1976). "Stationary and Nonstationary Learning Characteristics of the LMS Adaptive Filter," Proc. IEEE, 64(8), 1151-1162.

Wieland, A. P. (1991). "Evolving Controls for Unstable Systems," in Connectionist Models: Proceedings of the 1990 Summer School (Pittsburgh 1990), D. S. Touretzky, J. L. Elman, and G. E. Hinton, Editors, 91-102. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo.

Wieland, A. and Leighton, R. (1987). "Geometric Analysis of Neural Network Capabilities," First IEEE Int. Conf. on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), vol. III, 385-392. IEEE, New York.

Wiener, N. (1956). I Am a Mathematician. Doubleday, NY.

Wilkinson, J. H. (1965). The Algebraic Eigenvalue Problem. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Williams, R. J. (1987). "A Class of Gradient Estimating Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning in Neural Networks," in IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (San Diego 1987), M. Caudill and C. Butler, Editors., vol. II, 601-608. IEEE, New York.

Williams, R. J. (1992). "Simple Statistical Gradient-Following Algorithms for Connectionist Reinforcement Learning," Machine Learning, 8, 229-256.

Williams, R. J. and Zipser, D. (1989a). "A Learning Algorithm for Continually Running Fully Recurrent Neural Networks," Neural Computation, 1(2), 270-280.

Williams, R. J. and Zipser, D. (1989b). "Experimental Analysis of the Real-Time Recurrent Learning Algorithm," Connection Science, 1, 87-111.

Willshaw, D. J. and von der Malsburg, C. (1976). "How Patterned Neural Connections can be set up by Self-Organization," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 194, 431-445.

Winder, R. O. (1962). Threshold Logic, Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Mathematics, Princeton University, NJ.

Winder, R. O. (1963). "Bounds on Threshold Gate Realizability," IEEE Trans. Elec. Computers, EC-12(5), 561-564.

Wittner, B. S. and Denker, J. S. (1988). "Strategies for Teaching Layered Networks Classification Tasks," in Neural Information Processing Systems (Denver 1987), D. Z. Anderson, Editor, 850-859. American Institute of Physics, New York.

Wong, Y.-F. and Sideris, A. (1992). "Learning Convergence in the Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller," IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, 3(1), 115-121.

Xu, L. (1993). "Least Mean Square Error Reconstruction Principle for Self-Organizing Neural-Nets," Neural Networks, 6(5), 627-648.

Xu, L. (1994). "Theories of Unsupervised Learning: PCA and its Nonlinear Extensions," IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, (Orlando 1994), vol. XXX, XXXpage numbers XXX, IEEE Press.

Yanai, H. and Sawada, Y. (1990). "Associative Memory Network Composed of Neurons with Hysteretic Property," Neural Networks, 3(2), 223-228.

Yang, L. and Yu, W. (1993). "Backpropagation with Homotopy," Neural Computation, 5(3), 363-366.

Yoon, Y. O., Brobst, R. W., Bergstresser, P. R., and Peterson, L. L. (1989). "A Desktop Neural Network for Dermatology Diagnosis," Journal of Neural Network Computing, Summer, 43-52.

Yoshizawa, S., Morita, M. and Amari, S.-I. (1993a). "Capacity of Associative Memory Using a Nonmonotonic Neuron Model," Neural Networks, 6(2), 167-176.

Yoshizawa, S., Morita, M., and Amari, S.-I. (1993b). "Analysis of Dynamics and Capacity of Associative Memory Using a Nonmonotonic Neuron Model," in Associative Neural Memories: Theory and Implementation, M. H. Hassoun, Editor, 239-248. Oxford University Press, New York.

Youssef, A. M. and Hassoun, M. H. (1989). "Dynamic Autoassociative Neural Memory Performance vs. Capacity," Proc. SPIE, Optical Pattern Recognition, H.-K. Liu, Editor, 1053, 52-59.

Yu, X., Loh, N. K., and Miller, W. C. (1993). "A New Acceleration Technique for the Backpropagation Algorithm," in IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (San Francisco 1993), vol. III, 1157-1161, IEEE, New York.

Yuille, A. L., Kammen, D. M., and Cohen, D. S. (1989). "Quadrature and the Development of Orientation Selective Cortical Cells by Hebb Rules," Biological Cybernetics, 61, 183-194.

Zak, M. (1989). "Terminal Attractors in Neural Networks," Neural Networks, 2(4), 258-274.

Zhang, J. (1991). "Dynamics and Formation of Self-Organizing Maps," Neural Computation, 3(1), 54-66.

Back to Main Menu